Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(6), 391-398
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-6-5
Open AccessArticle

Volatile Compounds, Polyphenols and Sensory Quality in the Production of Tomato Vinegar

Cristina Cejudo-Bastante1, Enrique Durán-Guerrero2, Carmelo García-Barroso2 and Remedios Castro-Mejías2,

1Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Science Faculty, University of Cádiz, International Agri-food Campus of Excellence, ceiA3, Post Office Box 40, Polígono Río San Pedro, Puerto Real 11510, Cádiz, Spain

2Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences-CAIV, University of Cádiz, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CeiA3), Post Office Box 40, Polígono Río San Pedro, Puerto Real 11510, Cádiz, Spain

Pub. Date: May 23, 2017

Cite this paper:
Cristina Cejudo-Bastante, Enrique Durán-Guerrero, Carmelo García-Barroso and Remedios Castro-Mejías. Volatile Compounds, Polyphenols and Sensory Quality in the Production of Tomato Vinegar. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(6):391-398. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-6-5


Fresh tomato and tomato products are widely consumed products. Their beneficial properties are not only present in fresh products but also in fermented ones. Therefore, the production of fresh tomato derivatives could be a good alternative to get a higher diversification and to make a good use of possible overproductions. Tomato vinegar from tomato paste by submerged culture fermentation has been developed. Final assays of maceration with rehydrated tomato paste (3, 5 and 7% v/v) in order to improve the final composition and organoleptic characteristics were also carried out. Polyphenols and volatile compounds have been determined along production and maceration processes. The statistical study (analysis of variance and principal component analysis) showed significant differences in volatile compounds and polyphenols according to matrix (rehydrated tomato paste, tomato wine and tomato vinegar) and specific maceration conditions (amount of rehydrated tomato paste and maceration time), which were also supported by sensory analysis. On the basis of the analytical and sensory results, 3 days of maceration and 5% v/v of rehydrated tomato paste were fixed as optimum conditions to obtain a tomato vinegar from tomato paste.

polyphenols sensory analysis tomato paste vinegar volatile compounds

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Paramithiotis, S., Kouretas, K., Drosinos, E.H., “Effect of ripening stage on the development of the microbial community during spontaneous fermentation of green tomatoes”, J Sci Food Agric 94 (4), 1600-1606. June 2014.
[2]  Vallverdu, A,, Odriozola-Serrano, I., Oms-oliu, G., Lamuela-Ravento, R.M., Elez-Mart, P., Mart, O., “Changes in the polyphenol profile of tomato juices processed by pulsed electric fields”, J Agric Food Chem 60 (38), 9667-9672. September 2012.
[3]  Mendelová, A., Fikselová, M., Mendel, L., “Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice”, Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendelianae Brun, 61 (5), 1329-1337. 2013.
[4]  Koh, J.H., Kim, Y., Oh, J.H., “Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria”, J Food Sci 75 (5), 428-432. June/July 2010.
[5]  Tsen, J.H., Lin, Y.P., Huang, H.Y., King, V.A.E., “Studies on the fermentation of tomato juice by using κ-carrageenan immobilized lactobacillus acidophilus”, J Food Process Preserv 32 (2), 178-189. April 2008.
[6]  Anthon, G.E., Diaz, J.V., Barrett, D.M., “Changes in pectins and product consistency during the concentration of tomato juice to paste”, J Agric Food Chem 56 (16), 7100-7105. July 2008.
[7]  Lin, H., Qin, X., Aizawa, K., Inakuma, T., Yamauchi, R., Kato, K., “Chemical properties of water-soluble pectins in hot- and cold-break tomato pastes”, Food Chem 93 (3), 409-415. December 2005.
[8]  Cejudo-Bastante, M.J., Durán, E., Castro, R., Rodríguez-Dodero, M.C,, Natera, R., García-Barroso, C., “Study of the volatile composition and sensory characteristics of new sherry vinegar-derived products by maceration with fruits”, LWT Food Sci Technol 50(2), 469-479. March 2013.
[9]  Cejudo-Bastante, M.J., Rodríguez-Dodero, M.C., Durán-Guerrero, E., Castro-Mejías, R., Natera-Marín, R., García-Barroso, C., “Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar”, J Sci Food Agric 93(4), 741-748. March 2012.
[10]  Othaman, M.A., Sharifudin, S.A., Mansor, A., Kahar, A.A., Long, K., “Coconut water vinegar: New alternative with improved processing technique”, J Eng Sci Technol 9 (3), 293-302. June 2014.
[11]  Kaur, P., Kocher, G.S., Phutela, R.P., “Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation”, J Food Sci Technol 48 (6), 755-758. December 2011.
[12]  Ou, A.S.M., Chang, R.C. Taiwan fruit vinegar, Springer-Verlag, Milan, Italy 2009, 223-242.
[13]  Morales, M.L., Tesfaye, W., García-Parrilla, M.C., Casas, J.A., Troncoso, A.M., “Sherry wine vinegar: physicochemical changes during the acetification process”, J Sci Food Agric 81 (7), 611-619. May 2001.
[14]  Cejudo-Bastante, M.J., Durán-Guerrero, E., Castro-Mejías, R., Natera-Marín, R., Rodríguez-Dodero, M.C., García-Barroso, C., “Study of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of new sherry vinegar-derived products by maceration with fruits”, J Agric Food Chem 58 (22), 11814-11820. October 2010.
[15]  Durán-Guerrero, E., Natera-Marín, R., Castro-Mejías, R., García-Barroso, C., “Optimisation of stir bar sorptive extraction applied to the determination of volatile compounds in vinegars”, J Chromatogr A 1104 (1-2), 47-53. March 2006.
[16]  Schwarz, M., Rodríguez, M.C., Guillén, D.A., Barroso, C.G., “Development and validation of UPLC for the determination of phenolic compounds and furanic derivatives in Brandy de Jerez”, J Sep Sci 32 (11), 1782-1790. June 2009.
[17]  ISO (2007) “General guidance for the design of test rooms”. ISO 8589-2007.
[18]  ISO (2006) “Olive oil testing glass”. ISO 16657-2006.
[19]  Buttery, R.G., Teranishi, R., Ling, L.C., Turnbaugh, J.G., “Quantitative and sensory studies on tomato paste volatiles”, J Agric Food Chem 38 (1), 336-340. January 1990.
[20]  Viljanen, K., Lille, M., Heiniö, R.L., Buchert, J., “Effect of high-pressure processing on volatile composition and odour of cherry tomato purée”, Food Chem 129 (4), 1759-1765. December 2011.
[21]  Jackson R.S., Wine Science: Principles, Perspectives, Perceptions, Academic Press, San Diego CA, USA, 2008.
[22]  Owusu, J., Ma, H., Wang, Z., Afoakwah, N.A., Amissah, A., “Volatile profiles of tomato wine before and after ageing”, Maejo Int J Sci Technol 8 (2), 129-142. June 2014.
[23]  Nieto, J., González-Viñas, M.A., Barba, P., Martín-Álvarez, P.J., Aldalve, L., García-Romero, E., Cabezudo, M.D., Recent progress in wine vinegar R&D and some indicators for the future, Elsevier Science Publisher B.V, New York, USA, 469-499. 1993.
[24]  Stewart, A.J., Bozonnet, S., Mullen, W., Jenkins, G.L., Lean, M.E.J., Crozier, A., “Occurrence of flavonols in tomatoes and tomato-based products”, J Agric Food Chem 48 (7), 2663-2669. June 2000.
[25]  Le Gall, G., Dupont, M.S., Mellon, F.A., Davis, A.L., Collins G.J., Verhoeyen M.E., Colquhoun I.J., “Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits”, J Agric Food Chem 51 (9), 2438-2446. April 2003.
[26]  Darias-Martín J.J., Rodríguez O., Díaz E., Lamuela-Raventós R.M., “Effect of skin contact on the antioxidant phenolics in white wine”, Food Chem 71 (4), 483-487. December 2000.
[27]  Gil-Muñoz, R., “Evolution of phenolic compounds during wine fermentation and post-fermentation: influence of grape temperature, J Food Compos Anal 12 (4), 259-272. December 1999.
[28]  Owusu J., Wang Z., Afoakwah N.A., Zhou C., Amissah A., “Effect of pH and temperature on antioxidant levels of tomato wine”, J Food Biochem 39 (1), 91-100. February 2015.
[29]  Fernández-Zurbano, P., Ferreira, V., Peña, C., Escudero, A., Cacho, J., “Effects of maceration time and pectolytic enzymes added during maceration on the phenolic composition of must”, Food Sci Technol Int 5 (4), 319-325. August 1999.
[30]  Baldwin, E., Goodner, K., Plotto, A., Pritchett, K., Einstein, M., “Effect of volatiles and their concentration on perception of tomato descriptors”, J Food Sci 69 (8). 310-318. October 2004.
[31]  Markovic, K., Vahcic, M., Kovacevic-Ganic, K., Banovc, M., “Aroma volatiles of tomatoes and tomato products evaluated by solid-phase microextraction”, Flavour Fragr J 22 (5), 395-400. September/October 2007.
[32]  Alonso, A., García-Aliaga, R., García-Martínez, S., Ruiz, J.J., Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A., “Characterization of Spanish tomatoes using aroma composition and discriminant analysis”, Food Sci Technol Int 15 (1), 47-55. February 2009.
[33]  Selli, S., Kelebek, H., Ayseli, M.T., Tokbas, H., “Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis”, Food Chem 165, 540-546. December 2014.
[34]  Vallverdú-Queralt, A., Bendini, A., Barbieri, S., Di Lecce, G., Martin-Belloso, O., Toschi, T.G., “Volatile profile and sensory evaluation of tomato juices treated with pulsed electric fields”, J Agric Food Chem 61 (8), 1977-1984. February 2013.