Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(4), 234-242
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-4-5
Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Six Artichoke Cultivars and Their Suitability for Agro-industrial Processing

Nuria García-Martínez1, Pedro Andreo-Martínez1 and Luis Almela1,

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain

Pub. Date: April 07, 2017

Cite this paper:
Nuria García-Martínez, Pedro Andreo-Martínez and Luis Almela. Characterization of Six Artichoke Cultivars and Their Suitability for Agro-industrial Processing. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(4):234-242. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-4-5

Abstract

The study of artichoke cultivars characteristics is a useful tool for processors, wholesalers and retailers when selecting varieties for fresh marketing or agro-industrial processing. In this work six artichoke cultivars grown in Murcia (Spain) were evaluated to ascertain their optimum commercial use by determining their physical, chemical and biochemical parameters (production yield, shape, size, moisture and color of their heads, respiration rate, phenolic content, enzymatic activities and browning potential). When considering purplish varieties, the high oxidative and physiological stability obtained in Violet de Provence led us to identify this cultivar as the most suitable purplish cultivar for processing; while in white varieties, Blanca de Tudela showed the lowest browning and respiration rates. On the other hand, cultivars with higher browning susceptibility, physiological activity and phenolic content should be marketed preferably for fresh consumption. It was observed that phenolic content, enzymatic activities and browning potential were affected by factors such as genotype, harvest time and head parts. In addition, physical parameters such as morphology, moisture and color of heads, and plant productivity varied according to cultivar. Results demonstrate that there is a high variability on physical, chemical and biochemical characteristics of artichoke genotypes. Results may be used to define the optimum commercial use for different artichoke cultivars.

Keywords:
artichoke browning susceptibility enzymatic activity polyphenol oxidase respiration rate phenolic compounds

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  García-Martínez, N., Andreo-Martínez, P., Almela, L., Guardiola, L. and Gabaldón, J.A., “Microbiological and sensorial quality of fresh ready-to-eat artichoke hearts packaged under modified atmosphere”, Journal of Food Protection, 2016.
 
[2]  Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P.A., Linsalata, V. and Cardinali, A., “Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients”, Journal of Functional Foods, 1 (2). 131-144. 2009.
 
[3]  Lombardo, S., Pandino, G., Mauromicale, G., Knödler, M., Carle, R. and Schieber, A., “Influence of genotype, harvest time and plant part on polyphenolic composition of globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]”, Food Chemistry, 119 (3). 1175-1181. 2010.
 
[4]  Cefola, M., D'Antuono, I., Pace, B., Calabrese, N., Carito, A., Linsalata, V., et al., “Biochemical relationships and browning index for assessing the storage suitability of artichoke genotypes”, Food Research International, 48 (2). 397-403. 2012.
 
[5]  Lattanzio, V., Cardinali, A., Venere, D.D., Linsalata, V. and Palmieri, S., “Browning phenomena in stored artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads: enzymic or chemical reactions?”, Food Chemistry, 50 (1). 1-7. 1994.
 
[6]  Gil-Izquierdo, A., Gil, M., Conesa, M. and Ferreres, F., “The effect of storage temperatures on vitamin C and phenolics content of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads”, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2 (3). 199-202. 2001.
 
[7]  Cabezas-Serrano, A.B., Amodio, M.L., Cornacchia, R., Rinaldi, R. and Colelli, G., “Screening quality and browning susceptibility of five artichoke cultivars for fresh-cut processing”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89 (15). 2588-2594. 2009.
 
[8]  Soumaya, K., Chaouachi, F., Ksouri, R. and Gazzah, M.E., “Polyphenolic composition in different organs of tunisia populations of Cynara Cardunculus. L and their antioxidant activity”, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 1 (1). 1-6. 2013.
 
[9]  Magied, M.M.A., Hussien, S.E.D., Zaki, S.M. and Said, R.M.E., “Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves and heads extracts as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic in rats”, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 4 (1). 60-68. 2016.
 
[10]  Tomás Barberán, F. and Espín de Gea, J.C., “Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81. 853-876. 2001.
 
[11]  Todaro, A., Peluso, O., Catalano, A.E., Mauromicale, G. and Spagna, G., “Polyphenol oxidase activity from three sicilian artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. Var. scolymus L. (Fiori)] cultivars: studies and technological application on minimally processed production”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58 (3). 1714-1718. 2010.
 
[12]  Espı́n, J.C., Tudela, J. and Garcı́a-Cánovas, F., “Monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from artichoke heads (Cynara scolymus L.)”, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 30 (8). 819-825. 1997.
 
[13]  Sanchez-Ferrer, A., Rodriguez-Lopez, J.N., Garcia-Canovas, F. and Garcia-Carmona, F., “Tyrosinase: a comprehensive review of its mechanism”, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, 1247 (1). 1-11. 1995.
 
[14]  Dunford, H.B. and Stillman, J.S., “On the function and mechanism of action of peroxidases”, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 19 (3). 187-251. 1976.
 
[15]  Richard-Forget, F.C. and Gauillard, F.A., “Oxidation of chlorogenic acid, catechins, and 4-methylcatechol in model solutions by combinations of pear (Pyrus communis Cv. Williams) polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase:  a possible involvement of peroxidase in enzymatic browning”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45 (7). 2472-2476. 1997.
 
[16]  Robards, K., Prenzler, P.D., Tucker, G., Swatsitang, P. and Glover, W., “Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits”, Food Chemistry, 66 (4). 401-436. 1999.
 
[17]  Nicolas, J.J., Richard-Forget, F.C., Goupy, P.M., Amiot, M.J. and Aubert, S.Y., “Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34 (2). 109-157. 1994.
 
[18]  Sergio, L., Cardinali, A., De Paola, A. and Di Venere, D., “Biochemical properties of soluble and bound peroxidases from artichoke heads and leaves”, Food Technology and Biotechnology, 47 (1). 32. 2009.
 
[19]  Ahvenainen, R., “New approaches in improving the shelf life of minimally processed fruit and vegetables”, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 7 (6). 179-187. 1996.
 
[20]  Ricci, I., Amodio, M.L. and Colelli, G., “Influence of pre-cutting operations on quality of fresh-cut artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.): Effect of storage time and temperature before cutting”, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 85. 124-131. 2013.
 
[21]  Di Venere, D., Linsalata, V., Calabrese, N., Pieralice, M. and Bianco, V.V., “Morphological and biochemical changes during growth and development of artichoke buds”, Acta Horticulturae, 681. 437-443. 2005.
 
[22]  Bianco, V.V., “Present situation and future potential of artichoke in the Mediterran basin”, Acta Horticulturae, 681. 39-55. 2005.
 
[23]  Bonasia, A., Conversa, G., Lazzizera, C., Gambacorta, G. and Elia, A., “Morphological and qualitative characterisation of globe artichoke head from new seed-propagated cultivars”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (15). 2689-2693. 2010.
 
[24]  Fonseca, S.C., Oliveira, F.A. and Brecht, J.K., “Modelling respiration rate of fresh fruits and vegetables for modified atmosphere packages: a review”, Journal of Food Engineering, 52 (2). 99-119. 2002.
 
[25]  Blouin, J., Tecniques d´analyses des moûtes et des vins, Dujardin-Salleron, Paris, France, 1992.
 
[26]  Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A., “Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents”, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16 (3). 144-158. 1965.
 
[27]  Gauillard, F., Richard-Forget, F. and Nicolas, J., “New spectrophotometric assay for polyphenol oxidase activity”, Analytical Biochemistry, 215. 59-65. 1993.
 
[28]  Ferrer, M.A., Calderón, A.A., Muñoz, R. and Ros Barceló, A., “4-Methoxy-α-naphthol as a specific substrate for kinetic, zymographic and cytochemical studies on plant peroxidase activities”, Phytochemical Analysis, 1 (2). 63-69. 1990.
 
[29]  Calderón, A.A., Zapata, J.M., Muñoz, R. and Barceló, A.R., “Localization of peroxidase in grapes using nitrocellulose blotting of freezing/thawing fruits”, HortScience, 28 (1). 38-40. 1993.
 
[30]  Bradford, M.M., “A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding”, Analytical Biochemistry, 72. 248-254. 1976.
 
[31]  Omuaru, V., Abbey, W., Izonfuo, L. and Braide, S., “Enzymic browning in ripening plantain pulp (Musa paradisiaca) as related to endogenous factors”, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 27 (4). 239-241. 1990.
 
[32]  Walter, W.M. and Purcell, A.E., “Effect of substrate levels and polyphenol oxidase activity on darkening in sweet potato cultivars”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28 (5). 941-944. 1980.
 
[33]  Francis, F.J., “Quality as influenced by color”, Food Quality and Preference, 6 (3). 149-155. 1995.
 
[34]  Muratore, G., Restuccia, C., Licciardello, F., Lombardo, S., Pandino, G. and Mauromicale, G., “Effect of packaging film and antibrowning solution on quality maintenance of minimally processed globe artichoke heads”, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 31. 97-104. 2015.
 
[35]  Kader, A.A., “Postharvest biology and technology: An overview”, in Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, ed. by Kader, A.A., University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, U.S.A, 2002, 39-48.
 
[36]  Ruíz-Jiménez, J.M., Zapata, P.J., Serrano, M., Valero, D., Martínez-Romero, D., Castillo, S., et al., “Effect of oxalic acid on quality attributes of artichokes stored at ambient temperature”, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 95. 60-63. 2014.
 
[37]  Suslow, T. and Cantwell, M., “Artichoke (Globe): Recomendations for maintaining postharvest quality”, Dept. of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis. [Online]. Available: http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/pfvegetable/artichoke/. [Accessed Nov. 2, 2015].
 
[38]  Fratianni, F., Tucci, M., Palma, M.D., Pepe, R. and Nazzaro, F., “Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori)”, Food Chemistry, 104 (3). 1282-1286. 2007.
 
[39]  Negro, D., Montesano, V., Grieco, S., Crupi, P., Sarli, G., De Lisi, A., et al., “Polyphenol compounds in artichoke plant tissues and varieties”, Journal of Food Science, 77 (2). C244-C252. 2012.
 
[40]  Pandino, G., Lombardo, S., Mauromicale, G. and Williamson, G., “Profile of polyphenols and phenolic acids in bracts and receptacles of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) germplasm”, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24 (2). 148-153. 2011.
 
[41]  Agbor, G.A., Vinson, J.A. and Donnelly, P.E., “Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for polyphenolic assay”, International Journal of Food Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, 3 (8). 147-156. 2014.
 
[42]  Del Campo, G., Berregi, I., Iturriza, N. and Santos, J., “Ripening and changes in chemical composition of seven cider apple varieties”, Food Science and Technology International, 12 (6). 477-487. 2006.
 
[43]  Ruiz, A., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., Mardones, C., Vergara, C., Herlitz, E., Vega, M., et al., “Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate (Berberis microphylla) fruits and other native berries from southern Chile”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58 (10). 6081-6089. 2010.
 
[44]  del Barrio-Galán, R., Medel-Marabolí, M. and Peña-Neira, Á., “Effect of different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and phenolic composition and sensory characteristics of Syrah red wines fermented using different yeast strains”, Food Chemistry, 179. 116-126. 2015.
 
[45]  Robinson, D.S., “Peroxidases and their significance in fruits and vegetables”, in Food enzymology, ed. by FOX P.F., Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam, 1991, 399-426.
 
[46]  Couture, R., Cantwell, M., Ke, D. and Saltveit, M., “Physiological attributes related to quality attributes and storage life of minimally processed lettuce”, HortScience, 28 (7). 723-725. 1993.
 
[47]  Dawson, J.H., “Probing structure-function relations in heme-containing oxygenases and peroxidases”, Science, 240 (4851). 433-439. 1988.
 
[48]  Subramanian, N., Venkatesh, P., Ganguli, S. and Sinkar, V.P., “Role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the generation of black tea theaflavins”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47 (7). 2571-2578. 1999.
 
[49]  Rocha, A.M.C.N. and Morais, A.M.M.B., “Polyphenoloxidase activity and total phenolic content as related to browning of minimally processed ‘Jonagored’ apple”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82 (1). 120-126. 2002.