Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(1), 48-53
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-1-8
Open AccessArticle

Biological Evaluation and Application of Fermented Miang (Camellia sinensis Var. assamica (J.W.Mast.) Kitam.) for Tea Production

Panee Sirisa-Ard1, , Nichakan Peerakam2, Supadarat Sutheeponhwiroj1, Tomoko Shimamura3 and Suwalee Kiatkarun4

1Faculty of pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Burapha University, Chonburi Province, Thailand

3Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

4Tea Gallery Group (Thailand) Co. Ltd., Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

Pub. Date: January 21, 2017

Cite this paper:
Panee Sirisa-Ard, Nichakan Peerakam, Supadarat Sutheeponhwiroj, Tomoko Shimamura and Suwalee Kiatkarun. Biological Evaluation and Application of Fermented Miang (Camellia sinensis Var. assamica (J.W.Mast.) Kitam.) for Tea Production. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(1):48-53. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-1-8


Fermented Miang is a traditional masticatory snack of the northern people of Thailand. The aim of this study is to collect data concerning the length of fermentation and maturity of leaves (A01, A02, B01, B02, C) to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. A01 and B02 were selected for drying (A01D and B02D) since it was higher in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results showed that dried young fermented Miang (B02D) possessed higher GAE and TEAC values than A01D. It was developed as a tea product. Then Miang tea product was screened for pharmacological activities. It was found that dried Miang tea product showed a high level of antioxidant activity with TEAC = 216.0 mg/mg DW tea and showed the ability to scavenge O2- activity at IC50= 0.038 mg/ml. Furthermore, it showed the capability to inhibit tyrosinase and hyaluronidase including anti-glycation activity.

Camellia sinensis (L.) Total phenolic content Antioxidant Tyrosinase Hyaluronidase Anti-glycation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Purdue University Center for New Crops Plants Product: Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntz. [Online]. Available:
[2]  Siamteas. [Online]. Available:
[3]  Shingleton VL, Rossi JA: Colorimetry of total phenolic with phosphomolybdic- phosphotungstic acid reagents. AJEV 1965; 16: 144-158.
[4]  Wu JH, Tung YT, Wang SY, Shyur LF, Kuo YH, Chang ST: Phenolic antioxidants from the heartwood of Acacia confuse. J. Agric. Food. Chem 2005; 53: 5917-5921.
[5]  Masa A, Vilanova M: Flavonoid and aromatic characterization of cv. Albarin blanco (Vitis vinifera L.). Food Chemistry 2008; 107: 273-281.
[6]  Shimamura T, Sumikura Y, Yamazaki T, Tada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishikawa H, Matsui T, Sugimoto N, Akiyama H, Ukeda H: Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives -Inter-laboratory evaluation study. Analytical Sciences 2014; 30: 717-721.
[7]  Dojindo Molecular Technologies. INC. SOD Assay Kit-WST. [Online]. Available: html.
[8]  Masuda T, Yamashita D, Takeda Y, Yonemori S: Screening for tyrosinase inhibitors among extracts of seashore plants and identification of potent inhibitors from Garcinia subelliptica. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem 2005; 69: 197-201.
[9]  Murata T, Watahiki M, Tanaka Y, Miyase T, Yoshizaki F: Hyaluronidase inhibitors from Takuran, Lycopus lucidus. Chem. Pharm. Bull 2010; 58: 394-397.
[10]  COSMO BIO Co., LTD. Glycation Assay Kit. [Online]. Available:
[11]  Houlihan CM, Mo CT, Chang SS: The structure of rosmariquinone-a new antioxidant isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L. JAOCS 1985; 62: 96-97.
[12]  Nakiatini N, Kikuzaki M: A new antioxidative glycoside isolated from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Agric. Biot. Chem 1987; 51: 2727-2732.
[13]  Ashihara H, Deng WW, Mullen W, Crozier A: Distribution and biosynthesis of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis seedlings and expression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Phytochemistry 2010; 71(5-6): 559-566.
[14]  Shahidi F, Wanasundara PKJPD: Phenolic antioxidant. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutri 1992; 32: 67-103.
[15]  Kono S, Shinchi N, Yanai F, Imanishi K: Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: across-sectional study in northern Kyushu, Japan. Prev.Med 1992; 21: 526-531.
[16]  Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA: Effect of green and black tea supplementation on lipids, lipid oxidation and fibrinogen in the hamster: mechanism for the epidemiological benefits of tea drinking. FEBS Lett 1998; 433: 44-46.
[17]  Zhu QY, Huang Y, Tsang D, Chen ZY: Regeneration of alpha-tocopherol in human low-density lipoprotein by green tea catechin. J. Agric. Food. Chem 1999; 47: 2020-2025.
[18]  Camargo AEI, Daguer DAE, Barbosa DS: Green tea exerts antioxidant action in vitro and its consumption increases total serum antioxidant potential in normal and dyslipidemic subjects. Nutrition Research 2006; 26 (12): 626-631.
[19]  Kuroda Y, Hara Y: Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols. Mut. Res 1999; 436: 69-97.
[20]  Weisburger JH, Hare Y, Dolan L, Luo FQ, Pittman B, Zang E: Tea polyphenols as inhibitors of mutagenicity of major classes of carcinogens. Mut. Res 1996; 371: 57-63.
[21]  Steele VE, Kelloff GJ, Balentine D, Boone CW, Mehta R, Bagheri D, Sigman CC, Zhu S, Sharma S: Comparative chemopreventive mechanisms of green tea, black tea and selected extracts measured by in vitro bioassays. Carcinogenesis 2000; 2: 63-67.
[22]  Apostolides Z, Balentine BD, Harbowy ME, Weisburger JH: Inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) mutagenicity by black and green tea extracts and polyphenols. Mut. Res1996; 359: 159-163.
[23]  Apostolides Z, Balentine DA, Harbowy ME, Hara Y, Weisgurger JH: Inhibition of PhIP mutagenicity by catechins and theaflavins and gallate esters. Mut. Res 1997; 389: 167-172.
[24]  Kondo K, Masaaki K, Miyata N, Suzuki T, Toyoda M: Mechanistic studies of catechins as antioxidants against radical oxidation. Arch. Bioch. Bioph 1999; 362: 79-86.
[25]  Kuroda Y: Bio-antimutagenic activity of green tea catechins in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mut. Res 1996; 361: 179-186.
[26]  Ninomiya M, Unten L, Kim M: Chemical and physicochemical properties of green tea polyphenols. In: Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea (eds. Yamamoto T, Juneja LR, Chu DC, Kim M) ORC, New York.1997; 23-35.
[27]  Velayutham P, Babu A, Liu D: Green tea catechins and cardiovascular health: An update. Curr Med Chem 2008; 15(18): 1840-1850.
[28]  Khokhar S, Magnusdottir SGM: Total phenol, catechin and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United Kingdom. J. Agric. Food Chem 2002; 50: 565-570.
[29]  Tanizawa H, Sazuka Y, Komatsu A, Toda S, Taniko Y: A new efficacy test of antioxidants based on air-oxidation of linoleic. Chem. Pharm. Bull 1983; 31: 4139-4143.
[30]  Kajimoto G: Antioxidative components and antiseptic components in tea leaves. I. Antioxidant action and antiseptic action of materials extracted from the green tea with alcohol and water. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 1963; 10: 13-20.