Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(1), 31-36
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-1-6
Open AccessArticle

Biochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Extracts from 3 Species of Korean Pine Needles

So Jung Kim1, So Yun Park2, Juyun Lee3, Man Chang3, Youngjae Chung4 and Taek-Kyun Lee2,

1Gyeongbuk Institute for Marine Bio-Industry, Uljin, Republic of Korea

2South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje, Republic of Korea

3Korea Marine Environment Management Corporation, Seoul, Republic of Korea

4Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shingyeong University, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea

Pub. Date: January 13, 2017

Cite this paper:
So Jung Kim, So Yun Park, Juyun Lee, Man Chang, Youngjae Chung and Taek-Kyun Lee. Biochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Extracts from 3 Species of Korean Pine Needles. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(1):31-36. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-1-6


Crude extracts of pine needles have long been used as a health-food and for cosmetics. In this study, we determined the biochemical composition and biological activities of extracts from three pine species: red pine (RP, Pinus densiflora S et Z), Keumkang pine (KP, Pinus densiflora for. erecta) and sea pine (SP, Pinus thunbergii). The SP extract had the highest levels of moisture, ash, crude protein, and lipids based on the dry weight. The SP extract also had the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The SP extract had much more β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene-D than extracts from the other species. Total phenolic content was the highest in the 100% ethanol extract of SP, and the 50% ethanol extract of SP had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The SP extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. These results indicate that SP has the greatest potential as a natural antioxidant resource and raw material for cosmetic-goods.

pine needles biochemical composition nutritive value polyphenol physiological activity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Park YS, Jeon MH, Hwang HJ, Park MR, Lee SH, Kim SG, Kim M. “Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles,” Nutr Res Pract, 5(4), 281-287, 2011.
[2]  Graikou K, Gortzi O, Mantanis G, Chinou I. “Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from the wood of Pinus heldreichii Christ. var. leucodermis,” Eur J Wood Prod, 70, 615-620, 2012.
[3]  Lee WK, Biging GS, Son Y, Byun WH, Lee KH, Son YM, Seo JH. “Geostatistical analysis of regional differences in stem taper form of Pinus densiflora in central Korea,” Eco Res, 21, 513-525, 2006.
[4]  Park GY, Paudyal D, Hwang ID, Tripathi G, Yang YK, Cheong HS. “Production of fermented needle extracts from red pine and their functional characterization,” Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng, 13(2), 256-261, 2008.
[5]  Kim KY, Chung HJ. “Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea,” J Agr Food Chem, 48, 1269-1272, 2000.
[6]  Zeng WC, Zhang Z, Gao H, Jia LR, He Q. “Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara) ,” J Food Sci, 77(7), 824-829, 2012.
[7]  Maimoona A, Naeem I, Saddiqe Z, Jameel K. “A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract,” J Ethnopharmacol, 133, 261-277, 2011.
[8]  Oh BT, Choi SG, Cho SH. “Antimicrobial & physiological characteristics of ethanol extract from Pinus rigida Miller leaves,” Korean J Food Preserv, 13(5), 629-633, 2006.
[9]  Lee E. “Effects of powdered pine needle (Pinus densiflora seib et Zucc.) on serum and liver lipid composition and antioxidative capacity in rats fed high oxidized fat,” J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 32, 926-930, 2003.
[10]  Zeng WC, Zhang Z, Jia LR. “Antioxidant activity and characterization of antioxidant polysaccharides from pine needle (Cedrus deodara) ,” Carbohydr Polym, 8, 58-64, 2014.
[11]  Kwak CS, Moon SC, Lee MS. “Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora),” Nutr Cancer, 56(2), 162-171, 2006.
[12]  Apetrei CL, Spac A, Brebu M, Tuchilus C, Miron A. “Composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of a full-grown Pinus cembra L. tree from the Calimani Mountains (Romania),” J Serb Chem Soc, 78(1), 27-37, 2013.
[13]  Wei A, Shibamoto T. “Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils,” J Agr Food Chem, 55, 1737-1742, 2007.
[14]  AOAC. Official method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 16th ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Arlington. VA, USA 1995.
[15]  Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues,” J Biol Chem, 226, 497-509, 1957.
[16]  Suh SS, Kim SJ, Hwang J, Park M, Lee TK, Kil EJ, Lee S. “Fatty acid methyl ester profiles and nutritive values of 20 marine microalgae in Korea,” Asian Pac J Trop Med, 8(3), 191-196, 2015.
[17]  Kim YS, Shin DH. “Volatile components and antibacterial effects of pine needle (Pinus densiflora S. and Z.) extracts,” Food Microbiol, 22, 37-45, 2005.
[18]  Parliament TH. Solvent extraction and distillation techniques. In: Marsili R. editor. Techniques for analyzing food aroma. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, USA, 1997, 1-26.
[19]  Capannesi C, Palchetti I, Mascini M, Parenti A. “Electrochemical sensor and biosensor for polyphenols detection in olive oils,” Food Chem, 71, 535-562, 2000
[20]  Lu Y, Foo LY. “Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols apple pomace,” Food Chem, 68, 81-85, 2000.
[21]  Kim S, Woo S, Yun H, Yum S, Choi E, Do JR, Jo JH, Kim D, Lee S, Lee TK. “Total phenolic contents and biological activities of Korean seaweed extracts,” Food Sci Biotechnol, 14, 798-802, 2005.
[22]  Martino LD, Feo VD, Formisano C, Mignola E, Senatore F. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from three chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart growing wild in Campania (Southern Italy),” Molecules, 14, 2735-2746, 2009.
[23]  Zielinska A., Nowak I. “Fatty acids in vegetable oils and their importance in cosmetic industry,” CHEMIK, 68(2), 103-110, 2014.
[24]  Sa´nchez-Machado DI, Lo´pez-Cervantes J, Lo´pez-Herna´ndez J, Paseiro-Losada P. “Fatty acids, total lipid, protein and ash contents of processed edible seaweeds,” Food Chem, 85, 439-444, 2004.
[25]  Egert S, Somoza V, Kannenberg K, Fobker M, Krome K, Erbersdobler HF, Wahrburg U. “Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: Results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers,” Eur J Clin Nutr, 61(3), 314-325, 2007.
[26]  Efstathia I, Aikaterini K, Olga T, Vassilios R. “The genus Pinus: a comparative study on the needle essential oil composition of 46 pine species,” Phytochem Rev, 13(4), 741-768, 2014.