Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(10), 658-663
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-5
Open AccessArticle

Utilization of Breadfruit in Low Fat Cookie Formulation

Barber L.I1, , Emelike N.J.T1 and Sunday B.N1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: September 23, 2016

Cite this paper:
Barber L.I, Emelike N.J.T and Sunday B.N. Utilization of Breadfruit in Low Fat Cookie Formulation. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(10):658-663. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-10-5


Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) flour was processed and used to substitute margarine at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30% labelled A – D samples in the production of low fat cookies. Proximate and functional properties of the flour were studied, as well as the proximate, physical and sensory properties of the cookies made from the flour. The result showed that the breadfruit flour had moisture content of 3.24%, fat 10.20%, protein 9.88%, ash 2.56%, fibre 1.79% and carbohydrate 71.15%. Functional properties of the flour had values of 0.22g/ml, 0.01%, 2.50%, 0.86%, 44.40% and 2.01% for bulk density, foaming capacity, water and fat absorption capacity, emulsion capacity and least gelation concentration, respectively. Substitution of margarine with breadfruit flour increased the moisture content of the produced cookies from 3.4 – 4.9% (B and D samples), crude protein 7.8 – 9.5%, ash 1.0 – 1.2% and carbohydrate 48.5 – 60.7% while fat successively decreased from 39.2 – 23.4% for A and D samples. Physical properties of the cookies showed weight range of 31.25 – 39.30g, 1.98 – 2.70cm diameter, 1.63 – 1.98cm height and 1.00 – 1.66 spread ratio. Control cookie sample was highly preferred in all the sensory parameters analysed. Other samples were accepted up to 20% level of breadfruit flour substitution. From these analyses, low fat cookies can be produced using up to 30% breadfruit flour in place of fat and labelled low fat and improved protein for health conscious consumers. The sensory attributes of the cookies require improvement for better acceptability.

breadfruit low fat cookies proximate functional physical sensory properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Balas J (2001). Fatty acids in commercial food products. Part 1. Safe Food, 1, 20-21.
[2]  Mensik R.P, Zock P.L, Kester A.D and Katan M.B (2003). Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 1146-1155.
[3]  Zoulias E.I, Oreopoulou V and Tzia C (2000). Effect of fat mimetics on physical, textural and sensory properties of cookies. International Journal of Food Properties, 3, 385-397.
[4]  Giese J (1996). Fats, oils, and fat replacers. Food Technology, 50(4), 78-84.
[5]  Drewnowski A, Nordenten K and Dwyer J (1998). Replacing sugar and fat in cookies: impact on product quality and preference. Food quality and preference, 9(1/2), 13-20.
[6]  Ebere C.O, Emelike N.J.T and Kiin-Kabari D.B (2015). Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour and cashew-apple residue as a source of fibre. Asia Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 3(2), 213-218.
[7]  Emelike N.J.T, Uwa F.O, Ebere C.O and Kiin-Kabari D.B (2015a). Effect of drying methods on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies fortified with Moringa (Moringa olelfera) leaves. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(4), 361-367.
[8]  Kiin-Kabari D.B & Giami S.Y (2015). Physico-chemical properties and in-vitro protein digestibility of non-wheat cookies prepared from Plantain flour and Bambara Groundnut Protein concentrate. Journal of food research, 4(20), 78-86.
[9]  Zbikowska A and Rutkowska J (2008). Possibility of partial replacement of fat by inuline in cookies in order to decrease their caloric value. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 58(1), 113-117.
[10]  Zoulias E.I, Oreopoulou V and Tzia C (2002). Textural properties of low-fat cookies containing carbohydrate- or protein-based fat replacers. Journal of Food Engineering, 55, 337-342.
[11]  Quijano J and Arango G.J (1979). Breadfruit from Colombia –A detailed Chemical analysis. Economic Botany, 33(2), 199-202.
[12]  Ragone D (1997). Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis Parkinson). Fosberg. Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute: Rome, Italy.
[13]  Adewusi S.R, Udio A.J and Shuntogun B.A (1995). Studies on the carbohydrate content of breadfruit (Artocarpus commumis forest) from South Western Nigeria. Starch/Starke, 47, 287-294.
[14]  Amusa N.A, Kehinde I.A and Ashange O.A (2002). Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus cummunis) in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition. African Journal of Biotechnology, 1(2), 57-60.
[15]  Omobuwajo T.O (2003). Compositional characteristics and sensory quality of biscuit, prawn crackers and fried chips. Journal of Innovative food Science and Emerging Technologies, 4(2), 219-225.
[16]  Akanbi T.O, Nazamid S and Adebowale A.A (2009). Functional and pasting properties of a tropical breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. International Food Research Journal, 16, 151-157.
[17]  Arisa N.N, Adelakan A.O, Alamu A.E and Ogunfowora E.J (2013). The effect of pretreatment of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) flour on the pasting and sensory characteristics of biscuit. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(1), 10-23.
[18]  AOAC (2012). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (19th ed.), Gaithersburg, M.D. USA.
[19]  Osborne D.R and Voogt P (1978). The analysis of nutrients in foods. London Academic Press, 130-134.
[20]  Narayana K and Narasinga-Rao M.S (1984). NISPRI, 1990. Fruits and Vegetable: Storing your Produce Advisory Booklet. Journal of Food Science, 47(4), 1534-1538.
[21]  Coffman G.W and Garcia V.V (1977). Functional properties and amino acid content of protein isolate. Journal of Food Technology, 12: 473.
[22]  Sosulski F.W, Garratt M.D and Slinkard A.E (1976). Functional properties of ten legume flours. Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 9: 66-69.
[23]  Lin R.U, Humbert E.S and Sosulki (1974). Certain functional properties of sunflower meal products. Journal of Food Science, 39: 368-370.
[24]  Beuchat L.R (1977). Functional and electrophoretic activities of peanut flour. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 25: 252.
[25]  Giami S.Y and Barber L.I (2004). Utilization of protein concentrates from Ungerminated and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis Hook) seeds in cookie formulations Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84:1901-1907.
[26]  Iwe M.O. (2010). Handbook of sensory of analysis, Enugu, Nigeria. Rejoint Communication Science Ltd., 75-78.
[27]  Wahua T.A.T (1999). Applied Statistics for Scientific Studies. African Link Press, Aba, Nigeria.
[28]  Osabor V.N, Ogar D.A, Okafor P.C and Egbung G.E (2009). Profile of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(7), 1005-1008.
[29]  Nwaigwe J.O and Adejumo B.A (2015). Quality of African breadfruit (Treculia Africana) seed flour as influenced by thermal processing methods and duration. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research, 3(4), 102-108.
[30]  Bahkali A.H, Hussain M.A and Basahy A.Y (1998). Protein and oil composition of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in the Gizan Area of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 49, 409-414.
[31]  Onwuka G.I (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation Theory and Practices, Napthali Prints, Lagos, 140-176.
[32]  Berhanu A and Amare G (2014). Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of brebra (Milettia ferruginca) seed flour as well as physicochemical characterization of its seed oil. Springer Plus, 3, 298-307.
[33]  Emelike N.J.T and Ebere C.O (2015). Influence of processing methods on the tannin content and quality characteristics of cashew by-products. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 2(2), 56-61.
[34]  Basman A, Koksel H and Herber N.G (2003). Utilization of transgluranase use to increase the level of bakery and soy flour incorporation in wheat flour breads. Food Science Journal, 8(68), 2453-2460.
[35]  Emelike N.J.T, Barber L.I and Ebere C.O (2015b). Proximate, mineral and functional properties of defatted and undefatted cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) kernel flour. European Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(4), 11-19.
[36]  Oyoyede O.L (2005). Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 496, 379-381.
[37]  Hussain S, Anjun F.M, Butt M.S and Sheikh M.A (2008). Chemical compositions and functional properties of flaxseed flour. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 24(4), 649-653.
[38]  Adepeju A.B, Abiodun O.A, Otutu O.L and Pele I.G (2015). Development and quality evaluation of wheat/breadfruit cookies. International Journal of Research and Applications, 3(6), 7-11.
[39]  Osundahunsi O.F, Fagbemi T.N, Kasselman E and Shimoni E (2003). Comparison of the physicochemical properties and pasting characteristics of flour and starch from red and white sweet potatoes cultivars. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 2322-2236.
[40]  Fasasi O.S, Adeyemi I.A and Fabgenro O.A (2007). Functional and pasting characterstics of fermented maize and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour diet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6(4), 304-309.
[41]  Jimoh K.O and Olatidoye O.P (2009). Evaluation of physicochemical and rheological characteristics of soybean fortified yam flour. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 13, 703-706.
[42]  Odoemelam, S.A., 2003. Chemical composition and functional properties of conophor nut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) flour. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38: 729-734.
[43]  Ojinnaka M.C, Anyanwu F.A and Ihemeje A (2013). Nutritional evaluation of cookies produced from African breadfruit (Treculia africana) starch and wheat flour. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 3(3), 95-99.
[44]  Olaye O.A, Onilude A.A and Oladoye C.O (2007). Breadfruit flour in biscuit making: Effects on product quality. African Journal of Food Science, 020-023.
[45]  Mc-William M (1978). Food Fundamental. 3rd ed. California State University, Los Angeles, 27-29.
[46]  Min D.B and Boff J.M (2003). Crude Fat Analysis. In: “Food Analysis”. 3rd Edition.
[47]  Abu-Salem F.M and Abou-Arab A.A (2011). Effect of supplement of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraneam L.) flour on the quality of biscuits. African Journal of Food Science, 5(7), 376-383.