Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(9), 558-565
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-9-1
Open AccessArticle

Porphyra tenera Extracts Have Immune Stimulation Activity via Increasing Cytokines in Mouse Primary Splenocytes and RAW264.7 Macrophages

Hee-Bum Kang1, 2, Ji-Hye Song1, 2, Yanghee You3, 4, Jeongjin Park3, 4, Sungmin Kwak1, 2, Yoo-Hyun Lee5, Jeongmin Lee6, Su-il Kim7, Kyung-Chul Choi1, 2, and Woojin Jun3, 4,

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

2Department of Pharmacology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

3Division of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea

4Research Institute for Human Ecology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea

5Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Suwon, Kyunggi-do, South Korea

6Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Kyunggi-do, South Korea

7Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Jellanam-do, South Korea

Pub. Date: August 29, 2016

Cite this paper:
Hee-Bum Kang, Ji-Hye Song, Yanghee You, Jeongjin Park, Sungmin Kwak, Yoo-Hyun Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Su-il Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi and Woojin Jun. Porphyra tenera Extracts Have Immune Stimulation Activity via Increasing Cytokines in Mouse Primary Splenocytes and RAW264.7 Macrophages. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(9):558-565. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-9-1


Porphyra tenera has long been consumed as food in Korea and Asia. The effects of Porphyra tenera extracts on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the immune-stimulating effects of ethanol and water extracts of P. tenera. The immunomodulatory potential of P. tenera was evaluated by determining its effect on cell viability and cytokine expression of mouse RAW264.7 cells and splenocytes. We investigated the effect of 10% ethanol extracts of laver (P. tenera) on the RAW264.7 cells. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, and IL-4, inducible NO synthase, and interferon-γ) in RAW264.7 macrophages was slightly higher after treatment with P. tenera extracts. Ethanol extracts upregulated and enhanced the functions of macrophages, such as NO and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-4, inducible NO synthase, and interferon-γ) production. In addition, cytokine concentrations were significantly increased in cells treated with different doses of P. tenera ethanol extracts compared to the control group. Overall, the results demonstrated that P. tenera extracts enhanced cytokine secretion in mouse splenocytes and macrophages. From these findings, it can be concluded that P. tenera possess a natural compound with immune-stimulatory activity. P. tenera extract is a good immunostimulant from natural compounds.

porphyra tenera immune stimulation RAW264.7 cells cytokines splenocytes

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