Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(8), 490-497
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-2
Open AccessArticle

Development and Identification of Anti-cancer Component of Sulforaphane in Developmental Stages of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

Li Z. S.1, Liu Y. M.1, , Fang Z. Y.1, Yang L. M.1, Zhuang M.1, Zhang Y. Y1 and Lv H. H.1

1Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China

Pub. Date: August 11, 2016

Cite this paper:
Li Z. S., Liu Y. M., Fang Z. Y., Yang L. M., Zhuang M., Zhang Y. Y and Lv H. H.. Development and Identification of Anti-cancer Component of Sulforaphane in Developmental Stages of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(8):490-497. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-8-2

Abstract

Broccoli is a rich source of sulforaphane, an anti-cancer component. In the study, four broccoli lines were chosen to characterize the variation of sulforaphane among different organs and developmental stages by RP-HPLC. The result showed different changing rule of sulforaphane contents in the whole develop period. The contents in leaves were in the lowest level of the whole period, peaking 28 to 33 days after planting. The content of sulforaphane in florets was correspondingly higher in leaves part during mature stage. An interesting phenomenon happened in developmental buds, and the contents of sulforahane in buds decreased gradually from the top buds to mature buds, to buds one day before flowering and to flowers at bolting stage. Another new finding was that they increased gradually in seed pod and decreased in pod areas at developmental pod stage. Sulforaphane in seedlings decreased gradually in first ten days and then began to rise. Ripe seed contained the highest sulforaphane (3051.03 to 4624.63 mg·kg-1 FW). The study revealed the variation of sulforaphane content in developmental stages of broccoli, and the result provided scientific basis for anti-cancer research and human nutrition.

Keywords:
Sulforaphane Broccoli Glucoraphanin Development cycle HPLC

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 5

References:

[1]  Cramer, J.M., Jeffery, E.H., A comparison of the bioavailability of sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts and a semi-purified broccoli powder rich in glucoraphanin in healthy human males. Faseb Journal, 2009, 23.
 
[2]  Fahey, J.W., Zalcmann, A.T., Talalay, P., The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry, 2001, 56:5-51.
 
[3]  Angelino, D., Jeffery, E., Glucosinolate hydrolysis and bioavailability of resulting isothiocyanates: Focus on glucoraphanin. J Funct Foods, 2014, 7:67-76.
 
[4]  Agerbirk, N., Olsen, C.E., Chew, F.S., Orgaard, M., Variable glucosinolate profiles of Cardamine pratensis (Brassicaceae) with equal chromosome numbers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2010, 58: 4693-700.
 
[5]  Bertl, L., Bartsch, H., Gerhauser, C., Antiangiogenic properties of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanatc derived from broccoli. Cancer Epidem Biomar, 2003, 12: 1347s-s.
 
[6]  Campas-Baypoli, O.N., Sanchez-Machado, D.I., Bueno-Solano, C., Ramirez-Wong, B., Lopez-Cervantes, J., HPLC method validation for measurement of sulforaphane level in broccoli by-products. Biomedical chromatography: BMC, 2010, 24:387-92.
 
[7]  Bones, A.M., Rossiter, J.T., The enzymic and chemically induced decomposition of glucosinolates. Phytochemistry, 2006, 67: 1053-67.
 
[8]  Tang, L., Paonessa, J.D., Zhang, Y.S., Arnbrosone, C.B., McCann SE., Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. J Funct Foods, 2013, 5: 1996-2001.
 
[9]  Liang, H., Yuan, Q.P., Dong, H.R., Liu, Y.M., Determination of sulforaphane in broccoli and cabbage by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Food Compos Anal, 2006, 19:473-6.
 
[10]  Li, Z.S., Liu, Y.M, Fang, Z.Y., Yang, L.M., Zhuang, M., Zhang, Y.Y., Variation of Sulforaphane Levels in Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea Var. Italica) during Flower Development and the Role of Gene Aop2. J Liq Chromatogr R T, 2014, 37: 1199-211.
 
[11]  Fahey, J.W., Haristoy, X., Dolan, P.M., Kensler, T.W., Scholtus, I., Stephenson, K.K., Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2002, 99: 7610-5.
 
[12]  Conaway, C.C., Wang, C.X., Pittman, B., Yang, Y.M., Schwartz JE, Tian D., Phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane and their N-acetylcysteine conjugates inhibit malignant progression of lung adenomas induced by tobacco carcinogens in A/J mice. Cancer research, 2005, 65:8548-57.
 
[13]  Pawlik, A., Wiczk, A., Kaczynska, A., Antosiewicz, J., Herman-Antosiewicz, A., Sulforaphane inhibits growth of phenotypically different breast cancer cells. European journal of nutrition, 2013, 52:1949-58.
 
[14]  Kaminski, B.M., Loitsch, S.M., Ochs, M.J., Reuter, K.C., Steinhilber, D., Stein, J., Isothiocyanate sulforaphane inhibits protooncogenic ornithine decarboxylase activity in colorectal cancer cells via induction of the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway. Molecular nutrition & food research, 2010, 54:1486-96.
 
[15]  Evans, P.C., The influence of sulforaphane on vascular health and its relevance to nutritional approaches to prevent cardiovascular disease. The EPMA journal, 2011, 2:9-14.
 
[16]  Nakagawa, K., Umeda, T., Higuchi, O., Tsuzuki, T., Suzuki, T., Miyazawa, T., Evaporative light-scattering analysis of sulforaphane in broccoli samples: Quality of broccoli products regarding sulforaphane contents. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2006, 54:2479-83.
 
[17]  Saha, S., Hollands, W., Teucher, B., Needs, P.W., Narbad, A., Ortori, C.A., Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli. Molecular nutrition & food research, 2012, 56:1906-16.
 
[18]  Matusheski, N.V., Jeffery, E.H., Comparison of the bioactivity of two glucoraphanin hydrolysis products found in broccoli, sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2001, 49:5743-9.
 
[19]  Chiao, J.W., Chung, F.L., Kancherla, R., Ahmed, T., Mittelman, A., Conaway, C.C., Sulforaphane and its metabolite mediate growth arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. International journal of oncology, 2002, 20:631-6.
 
[20]  Josefsson, E., Effects of variation of heat treatment of conditions on the nutritional value of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 1975, 26:157-64.
 
[21]  Kushad, M.M., Brown, A.F., Kurilich, A.C., Juvik, J.A., Klein, B.P., Wallig, M.A., Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 1999, 47:1541-8.
 
[22]  Liang, H., Yuan, Q.P., Xiao, Q., Effects of metal ions on myrosinase activity and the formation of sulforaphane in broccoli seed. J Mol Catal B-Enzym, 2006, 43:19-22.
 
[23]  Zang, Y.X., Kim, H.U., Kim, J.A., Lim, M.H., Jin, M., Lee, S.C., Genome-wide identification of glucosinolate synthesis genes in Brassica rapa. The FEBS journal, 2009, 276:3559-74.
 
[24]  Gorissen, A., Kraut, N.U., Visser, R., Vries, M., Roelofsen, H., Vonk, R.J., No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings. Food chemistry, 2011, 127:192-6.
 
[25]  Bennett R., Ludwigmuller, J., Kiddle, G., Hilgenberg, W., Wallsgrove, R., Developmental Regulation Gf Aldoxime Formation in Seedlings and Mature Plants of Chinese-Cabbage (Brassica-Campestris Ssp Pekinensis) and Oilseed Rape (Brassica-Napus) - Glucosinolate and Iaa Biosynthetic-Enzymes. Planta, 1995, 196:239-44.
 
[26]  Guo, L.P., Yang, R.Q., Wang, Z.Y., Guo, Q.H., Gu, Z.X.. Glucoraphanin, sulforaphane and myrosinase activity in germinating broccoli sprouts as affected by growth temperature and plant organs. J Funct Foods, 2014, 9:70-76.
 
[27]  Brown, P.D., Tokuhisa, J.G., Reichelt, M., Gershenzon, J., Variation of glucosinolate accumulation among different organs and developmental stages of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry, 2003, 62:471-81.
 
[28]  Farnham, M.W., Wilson, P.E., Stephenson, K.K., Fahey, J.W., Genetic and environmental effects on glucosinolate content and chemoprotective potency of broccoli. Plant Breeding, 2004, 123:60-5.
 
[29]  Bennett, R.N., Hick, A.J., Dawson, G.W., Wallsgrove, R.M., Glucosinolate Biosynthesis-Further Characterization of the Aldoxime Forming Microsomal Monooxygenases in Oilseed Rape Leaves. Plant physiology, 1995, 109:299-305.
 
[30]  Li, C.F., Liang, H., Yuan, Q.P., Hou, X.D., Optimization of sulforaphane separation from broccoli seeds by macroporous resins. Separ Sci Technol, 2008, 43:609-23.
 
[31]  Li, J.C., Maezawa, S., Nakano, K., Correlations between antioxidative enzyme activities and antioxidative substrates and senescence in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) flower buds at different storage temperatures. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci, 2004, 73: 399-403.
 
[32]  Starzynska, A., Leja, M., Mareczek, A., Physiological changes in the antioxidant system of broccoli flower buds senescing during short-term storage, related to temperature and packaging. Plant Science, 2003, 165:1387-95.
 
[33]  Liang, H., Li, C., Yuan, Q., Vriesekoop, F., Separation and purification of sulforaphane from broccoli seeds by solid phase extraction and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2007, 55:8047-53.
 
[34]  Lopez-Cervantes, J., Tirado-Noriega, L.G., Sanchez-Machado, D.I., Campas-Baypoli ON, Cantu-Soto EU, Nunez-Gastelum JA. Biochemical composition of broccoli seeds and sprouts at different stages of seedling development. Int J Food Sci Tech, 2013, 48: 2267-75.
 
[35]  Ares, A.M., Bernal, J., Martin, M.T., Bernal, J.L., Nozal, M.J., Optimized Formation, Extraction, and Determination of Sulforaphane in Broccoli by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection. Food Anal Method, 2014, 7:730-40.