Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(5), 327-333
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-5-9
Open AccessArticle

Pumpkin Peel Flour (Cucurbita máxima L.) – Characterization and Technological Applicability

Ana Carolina Burger Staichok1, Kamylla Rayssa Barros Mendonça1, Pâmella Guerra Alves dos Santos1, Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta Garcia2 and Clarissa Damiani1,

1Food Technology Departament, Federal University of Goiás, Box 131, CEP 74690-900, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

2Agronomy Departament, Federal University of Goiás, Box 131, CEP 74690-900, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

Pub. Date: June 25, 2016

Cite this paper:
Ana Carolina Burger Staichok, Kamylla Rayssa Barros Mendonça, Pâmella Guerra Alves dos Santos, Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta Garcia and Clarissa Damiani. Pumpkin Peel Flour (Cucurbita máxima L.) – Characterization and Technological Applicability. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(5):327-333. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-5-9


The objectives of this paper were both the production and the characterization of flour from pumpkin peel as well as the development of breads with partial addition of the flour obtained from pumpkin peel substituting wheat flour. The characterization of the pumpkin peel flour revealed high protein content and good milk solubility index. We developed the following formulations: standard bread, bread with only wheat flour, and breads with 2.5 percent and five percent of pumpkin peel flour. The results demonstrated significant difference (p < 0.05) among the formulations regarding protein, ashes, carbohydrates, and caloric value. The texture parameters, in turn, indicated difference regarding cohesiveness and elasticity for the breads produced with 2.5 percent and five percent pumpkin peel flour. Specific volume and diameter also presented significant differences among the formulations. The manufacturing of breads with pumpkin peel flour is a healthy food alternative regarding the reuse of peels to reduces food waste. The formulation with the most satisfactory results among the analyses conducted involved the bread with five percent substitution with pumpkin peel flour.

exploitationco-products bakery proteins

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  EMBRAPA. “Catálogo Brasileiro de Hortaliças”. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Hortaliças, 2010. Disponível em: [Accessed March. 5, 2015.
[2]  Monteiro, B.A. “Nutritional value of conventional and unconventional parts of fruits and vegetables”. Dissertation, Paulista State University, 2009.
[3]  AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edition, 3th Review, Washington: AOAC International, 2010.
[4]  Anderson, R.A. et al. “Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking”. Cereal Science Today, 14 (1), 4-11, 1969.
[5]  Merrill, A.L., Watt, B.K. “Energy value of foods: basis and derivation”. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture. 1973.
[6]  AACC. American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. USA: AACC, 2000.
[7]  El-Dash, A.A., Camargo, C.O. and Diaz, N.M. Fundamentals of Baking technology. Secretaria da Indústria Comércio e Tecnologia: São Paulo, 1982, p.1-243.
[8]  ESCOUTO, L.F.S. “Preparation and sensory evaluation mass premix for gluten-free bread energy from cassava derivatives”. Thesis, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, UNESP, 2004.
[9]  BRASIL. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA. Resolução n° 263, de 22 de setembro de 2005 – Regulamento Técnico para produtos de cereais, amidos, farinhas e farelos. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, set. 2005.
[10]  El-Dash, A. and Germani, R. Technology mixed flours: use of mixed flour of wheat and corn in the production of bread. EMBRAPA – SPI: Brasília, 1994. 81 p.
[11]  Achu, M.B., Fokou, E., Tchiégang, C., Fotso, M. and Tchouanguep, F.M. “Nutritive value of some Cucurbitaceae oilseeds from different regions in Cameroon”. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4 (11), 1329-1334, 2005.
[12]  NEPA - Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Alimentação da UNICAMP Tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos: TACO: Campinas, 2011. 161 p.
[13]  Santangelo, S.B. “Use pumpkin seed meal (Cucurbita maxima, L.) panettone”. Dissertation, Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 2006.
[14]  Couto, E.M. et al. Chemical characterization of the flour Pequi. In: 14th Congresso Pós-Graduandos da UFLA, Lavras, UFLA, 2005.
[15]  Amorim, A.G., Sousa, T.A. and Souza, A.O. Determination of pH and titratable acidity of pumpkin seed meal (Cucurbita máxima). In: 7th Congresso Norte Nordeste de Pesquisa e Inovação, Palmas: IF-Sertão, 1-6, 2012.
[16]  Freire, L.S., Freitas, A.K.N., Paz, H.C., Silva, M.J.M. and Pires, R.M.C. Determination of pH and water activity in yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). 5th Simpósio de segurança alimentar. Bento Gonçalves: RS, 1-5, 2015.
[17]  Piekarski, F.V.B.W. “Pumpkin Sheet: physical-chemical, mineral and effect of the addition in the mass rheology and sensory quality of bread containing dietary fiber”. Dissertation, Federal University of Paraná, 2009.
[18]  Chisté, R.C., Cohen, K.O., Mathias, E.A. and Ramos Júnior, A.G.A. “Quality of cassava flour from a dry group”. Food Science and Technology, 26 (4), 861-864, 2006.
[19]  Fernandes, A.F., Pereira, J., Germani, R. and Oiano-Neto, J. “Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.)”. Food Science and Technology, 28 (Supl.), 55-56, 2008.
[20]  Couto, E.M. “Using pequi shell flour (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) In the preparation of pan bread”. Dissertation, Federal University of Lavras, 2007.
[21]  Fiorda, F.A., Júnior, M.S.S., Silva, F.A. and Souto, L.R.F., Grossmann, M.V.E. (2013). “Cassava bagasse flour: use of by-product and comparison with cassava starch.” Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 43 (4), 408-416, 2013.
[22]  Ferreira, S.M. “Enzymatic modification of broken grains of rice flour for food production without gluten”. Dissertation, Federal University of Goiás, 2012.
[23]  BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. “Resolução RDC n. 90, de 18 de outubro de 2000” - Regulamento técnico para fixação de identidade e qualidade de pão. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, out. 2000.
[24]  Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H. and Tananaki, C. “Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat fl our doughs and their effect on rheological properties”. Food Chemistry, 77 (2), 219-227, 2002.
[25]  Maforimbo, E., Skurray, G., Uthayakumaran, S. and Wrigley, C.W. “Improved functional properties for soywheat doughs due to modification of the size distribution of polymeric proteins”. Journal of Cereal Science, 43 (2), 223-229, 2006.
[26]  Ribotta, P.D., Arnulphi, S., Leon, A.E. and Anon, M.C. “Effect of soybean addition on the rheological properties and breadmaking quality of wheat flour”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85 (11), 1889-1896, 2005.
[27]  Roccia, P., Ribotta, P.D., Perez, G.T. and Leon, A.E. “Influence of soy protein on rheological properties and water retention capacity of wheat gluten”. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42 (1), 358-362, 2009.
[28]  Queji, M.F.D., Schemin, M.H. and Trindade, J.L.F. “Rheological properties of wheat dough with added alpha-amylase”. Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Ciências Agrárias e Engenharias, 12 (2), 21-29, 2006.
[29]  Oliveira, T.M., Pirozi, M.R. and Borges, J.T.S. “Use of flaxseed and wheat composite flour in bread making”. Alimentos e Nutrição, 18 (2), 141-150, 2007.
[30]  Škrbić, B., Milovac, S., Codig, D. and Filipčev, B. “Effects of hull-less barley fl our and flakes on bread nutritional composition and sensory properties”. Food Chemistry, 115 (3), 982-988, 2009.
[31]  Szczesniak, A.S. “Texture is a sensory property”. Food Quality and Preference, 13 (4), 215-225, 2002.
[32]  Moreira, M.R. “Premix preparation for gluten-free bread for coeliacs”. Dissertation, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 2007.
[33]  Mohammed, I., Ahmed, R.A. and Senge, B. “Dough rheology and bread quality of wheat– chickpea flour blends”. Industrial Crops and Products, 36 (1), 196-202, 2012.
[34]  Morris, C. and Morris, G.A. “The effect of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the textural, rheological and sensory properties of bread and their role in weight management: a review”. Food Chemistry, 133 (2), 237-248, 2012.
[35]  Gutkoski, L. C., Velloso, C.B., Dório, C.T., Silveria, A.A. and Bonafé, L.Z. “Use of mixed wheat flour and oats in baked goods: breads type form, salt and pre-pizza”. Boletim CEPPA, 11 (1), 33-45, 1993.
[36]  Freitas, R.E., Stertz, S.C. and Waszczynskyj, N. “Viability of the production of bread, using mixed wheat flour and cassava in different proportions”. Boletim CEPPA, 15 (2), 197-208, 1997.