Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(4), 258-266
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-4-10
Open AccessReview Article

Erosion of the Mediterranean Diet in Apulia Region, South-eastern Italy: Exploring Socio-cultural and Economic Dynamics

Francesco Bottalico1, 2, , Xavier Medina3, Roberto Capone1, Hamid El Bilali1 and Philipp Debs1

1Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Rural Development department, International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies of Bari (CIHEAM-Bari), Valenzano (Bari), Italy

2Department of Science and Technology, Parthenope University of Naples, Naples, Italy

3Department of Food Systems, Culture and Society, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Pub. Date: May 30, 2016

Cite this paper:
Francesco Bottalico, Xavier Medina, Roberto Capone, Hamid El Bilali and Philipp Debs. Erosion of the Mediterranean Diet in Apulia Region, South-eastern Italy: Exploring Socio-cultural and Economic Dynamics. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(4):258-266. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-4-10

Abstract

Global food systems are changing rapidly with profound implications for culinary systems and diets. In this scenario, the Mediterranean diet (MD), a lifestyle recognized by UNESCO in 2010 as intangible cultural heritage of humanity, is no exception. The MD is a dynamic heritage of millennia of exchanges in the Mediterranean basin, but currently is progressively being rapidly transformed. The aim of this review paper is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the main factors, especially socio-cultural and economic ones, that have determined the rapid transformation and, consequently, the erosion of the traditional idea of the MD and the major concerns arising from decline of the adherence to this dietary pattern in Apulia region (south-eastern Italy). Different socio-cultural and economic factors such as income increase, changes in intergenerational and gender (role of women in society) relationships, different organization of working time, urbanization and globalization have had important effects on Mediterranean lifestyles thus leading to a decrease in adherence to the Mediterranean local dietary pattern. With rising incomes and urbanization, food habits with pronounced cultural differences specific to the Mediterranean region are being more westernised with increasing animal products consumption. The increased consumption of energy-dense and high-calorie products leads to an increase of obesity and diet-related diseases incidence. In fact, data of the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) show a progressive increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in the adult population of Apulia; approximately 39% and 13% of adult population is overweight and obese, respectively. These data are moderately higher than the Italian average. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the MD model is decreasing in Apulia region under various influences. These influences seriously threaten the preservation of the local MD heritage and its transmission to future generations. Therefore, today’s main challenge is to counter these influences and reverse the trends in the MD by implementing appropriate policies supported by research activities and bottom-up and multi-stakeholder initiatives.

Keywords:
Mediterranean diet Apulia region Italy diet erosion food system

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