Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(4), 223-229
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-4-5
Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Status of School Children in Tripoli City, Libya 2012

Enayat Mahmoud Hassan1, Laila Ashour Khalifa Hashad1 and Magda Ibrahim Hassan1,

1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Pub. Date: May 16, 2016

Cite this paper:
Enayat Mahmoud Hassan, Laila Ashour Khalifa Hashad and Magda Ibrahim Hassan. Nutritional Status of School Children in Tripoli City, Libya 2012. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(4):223-229. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-4-5

Abstract

This investigation aimed to assess the nutritional status & the prevalence of obesity among school children in Tripoli, Libya. 94 children were chosen randomly from primary private schools in central Tripoli. A structured questionnaire was done, then administered to mothers to get demographic data. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), and Body Fat Percentile (BFP)). Each mother was asked to complete 24 hour recall on three days for every child. Blood biochemical parameters of children (hemoglobin, minerals & vitamins) were estimated. About 90% of children took over their requirements of fat and carbohydrates. Most of the children did not get their requirements from vitamin D according to 24 h recall. One third of children were stunted (H/A average 133.78cm). About 50% of children were over-weighted or obese according to anthropometric measurement. The values of serum hemoglobin, and vitamin B12 levels were normal in all children. On the contrary, 66% of school students had low concentrations (<10 ng/ml) of vitamin D. Fat intake of the majority of children (90.4%) was high. However, 78.8% of them consumed potato chips (p= 0.027). More than half of obese children (21.3%) got daily expenses of two LYD or more (p= 0.05) (relationship between pocket money and BMI). A positive correlation (r = 0.222; P < 0.005) was noted between pocket money and body fat percentile. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.332; P < 0.001) was observed between body fat percentile and arm circumference. This study found a prevalence of over-weight, obesity, stunting and deficiency of vitamin D among primary school children in Tripoli, Libya. Similar studies are needed to do in the future in different areas in Libya.

Keywords:
24 hour recall Anthropometry Nutrient Intake BMI Percentiles Blood Analysis School children Libya

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 1

References:

[1]  Nwokoro, S. O., Ifada, K., Onochie, O., & Olomu, J. M. Anthropometric Assessment of Nutritional Status and Growth of 10 Individuals in Benin City (Nigeria) Metropolis. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5(2), 117-121, 2006.
 
[2]  Elabani, F. A., & Kure, J. Study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Libyan children in relation to their socioeconomic level status and fast food meals. Libyan Journal of Medical Research, 9(2), 2015.
 
[3]  Ghorab, N. Group Feeding. Eddar Ejamiyia, Alexandria, Egypt, 2005.
 
[4]  Ben Khayal, F. A., Belhassen, A. H. and Saleh, M. N. Feeding primary school students in El-Beyda. Assiut Journal of Environmental Studies. 30, January 2006. http://www.aun.edu.eg/mag/mag6/a7.htm.
 
[5]  Perez-Rodrigo, C., & Aranceta, J. School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives. Public Health Nutrition, 4(1A; SPI), 131-140, 2001.‏
 
[6]  Müller, O., & Krawinkel, M. Malnutrition and health in developing countries. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 173(3), 279-286, 2005.‏
 
[7]  Hien, N. N., & Kam, S. Nutritional status and the characteristics related to malnutrition in children under five years of age in Nghean, Vietnam. J Prev Med Public Health, 41(4), 232-240, 2008.
 
[8]  Zemel, B. S., Riley, E. M., & Stallings, V. A. Evaluation of methodology for nutritional assessment in children: anthropometry, body composition, and energy expenditure. Annual review of nutrition, 17(1), 211-235, 1997.‏
 
[9]  Mirmiran, P., Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, R., Jalali-Farahani, S., & Azizi, F. Childhood obesity in the Middle East: a review/Revue sur l'obésité de l'enfant au Moyen-Orient. Eastern Mediterranean health journal, 16(9), 1009, 2010.
 
[10]  Marie-Françoise, R. C., Najeeb, E., Ahmed, A. M., Ibrahim, B., & Gerard, L. Nutritional status of under-five children in Libya; a national population-based survey. Libyan Journal of Medicine, 3(1), 13-19, 2008.
 
[11]  De Onis, M., Monteiro, C., Akré, J., & Clugston, G. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth. Bulletin of the World health Organization, 71(6), 703-712, 1993.‏
 
[12]  Hoffman, D. J. Obesity in developing countries: causes and implications. FOOD NUTRITION AND AGRICULTURE, (28), 35-44, 2001.
 
[13]  Livingstone, M. B. E., Robson, P. J., & Wallace, J. M. W. Issues in dietary intake assessment of children and adolescents. British Journal of Nutrition, 92(S2), S213-S222, 2004.‏
 
[14]  Institute of Medicine (US). Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Panel on Macronutrients Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academies Press, 2005.
 
[15]  Gibson, R. S. Assessment of trace-element status. Principles of nutritional assessment, 511-576, 1990.
 
[16]  Lee, R. D., & Nieman, D. C. (2003). Biochemical assessment of nutritional status. Nutritional Assessment, 3a ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
 
[17]  NHS choices. BMI healthy weight calculator, 2015. http://www.nhs.uk/Tools/Pages/Healthyweightcalculator.aspx
 
[18]  Sequoia Warrior Digital Body Mass Caliper, http://www.athletecentral.com.au/Sequoia/Sequoia-Warrior-Digital-Body-Mass-Caliper, USA.
 
[19]  McCarthy, H. D., Cole, T. J., Fry, T., Jebb, S. A., & Prentice, A. M. Body fat reference curves for children. International journal of obesity, 30(4), 598-602, 2006.
 
[20]  Vanzetti, G. An azide-methemoglobin method for hemoglobin determination in blood. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 67(1), 116-126, 1966.
 
[21]  Sarkar, B. R., & Chauhan, U. P. S. A new method for determining micro quantities of calcium in biological materials. Analytical Biochemistry, 20(1), 155-166, 1967.
 
[22]  Henry, R. J. Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Techniques. Hoeber Medical, Harper-Row, 190, 1964.
 
[23]  Hassan, E. M., Abd-Allah, N, M.; Alshamsi, E, O. Some factors affecting the nutritional status of female adolescent students in Dubai City at united Arab Emirates. Master (Msc) Thesis, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2007.
 
[24]  Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med, 2012. 3 (1), 1-7, 2015.
 
[25]  Mondini, L., Rodrigues, D. A., Gimeno, S. G., & Baruzzi, R. G. Nutritional status and hemoglobin values of Aruak and Karibe Indian children: Upper Xingu, Central Brazil, 2001-2002. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 12(3), 469-477, 2009.
 
[26]  Popkin, B. M. The nutrition transition in low-income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutrition reviews, 52(9), 285-298, 1994.
 
[27]  Elmagri, F., Bojeldein, S., Amnaina, A., & El Shourbagy, O. Nutritional status of children attending first year primary school in Derna, Libya in 2007. Menoufiya Medical Journal, 1(21), 375-378, 2008.‏
 
[28]  Krebs, N. F., Himes, J. H., Jacobson, D., Nicklas, T. A., Guilday, P., & Styne, D. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics, 120(Supplement 4), S193-S228, 2007.
 
[29]  Akbar, F. N., Lodhi, A., Mahmood, S., Mueen-ud-Din, G., & Murtaza, M. A. Nutritional Status of School Going Children in Relation to Their Dietary Intake at Mid-Morning. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 14(3), 150, 2015.
 
[30]  Moody, A., Stamatakis, E., & Wardle, H. Obesity among children under 11. Department of Health, 2005.
 
[31]  Linhares, E. R., Jones, D. A., Round, J. M., & Edwards, R. H. Effect of nutrition on vitamin D status: studies on healthy and poorly nourished Brazilian children. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 39(4), 625-630, 1984.
 
[32]  Wagner, C. L., & Greer, F. R. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics, 122(5), 1142-1152, 2008.
 
[33]  Crawford, P. B., Obarzanek, E., Morrison, J., & Sabry, Z. I. Comparative advantage of 3-day food records over 24-hour recall and 5-day food frequency validated by observation of 9-and 10-year-old girls. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 94(6), 626-630, 1994.
 
[34]  Katyal, R., Singh, S. P., Joshi, H. S., Singh, A., & Joshi, G. Assessment of nutritional status among under-five children based on the nutritional indices in rural area of Bareilly for screening undernutrition. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(6), 2016.
 
[35]  Ulijaszek, S. J., & Kerr, D. A. Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. British Journal of Nutrition, 82(03), 165-177, 1999.
 
[36]  Lichtman, S. W., Pisarska, K., Berman, E. R., Pestone, M., Dowling, H., Offenbacher, E., & Heymsfield, S. B. (1992). Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. New England Journal of Medicine, 327(27), 1893-1898.
 
[37]  Poslusna, K., Ruprich, J., de Vries, J. H., Jakubikova, M., & van't Veer, P. (2009). Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. British Journal of Nutrition, 101(S2), S73-S85.‏
 
[38]  Johnson, R. K., Soultanakis, R. P., & Matthews, D. E. (1998). Literacy and body fatness are associated with underreporting of energy intake in US low-income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall: a doubly labeled water study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98(10), 1136-1140
 
[39]  Espeland, M. A., Kumanyika, S., Wilson, A. C., Reboussin, D. M., Easter, L., Self, M., ... & McFarlane, M. (2001). Statistical issues in analyzing 24-hour dietary recall and 24-hour urine collection data for sodium and potassium intakes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153(10), 996-1006.
 
[40]  Slimani, N., Ferrari, P., Ocke, M., Welch, A., & Boeing-Messing, H. (2015). Standardization of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).
 
[41]  Haraldsdottir, J., & Hermansen, B. Repeated 24-h recalls with young schoolchildren. A feasible alternative to dietary history from parents?. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (United Kingdom), 1995.
 
[42]  Rajurkar, N. S., Patil, S. F., & Zatakia, N. H. (2012). Assessment of Iron and Hemoglobin Status in Working Women of Various Age Groups. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4, 2300-2305.
 
[43]  Hung, S. P., Chen, C. Y., Guo, F. R., Chang, C. I., & Jan, C. F. (2016). Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults. Obesity research & clinical practice.‏
 
[44]  Punitha, V. C., Amudhan, A., Sivaprakasam, P., & Rathnaprabhu, V. Pocket Money: Influence on Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Urban Adolescents. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 8(12), JC10, 2014.
 
[45]  Gillis, L. J., & Bar-Or, O. Food away from home, sugar-sweetened drink consumption and juvenile obesity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 22(6), 539-545, 2003.