Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(1), 60-68
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-1-10
Open AccessArticle

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Leaves and Heads Extracts as Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic in Rats

Mona Mohamed Abdel Magied1, , Salah EL Din Hussien1, Sahar Mohamed Zaki2 and Rania Mohamed EL Said2

1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Pub. Date: January 30, 2016

Cite this paper:
Mona Mohamed Abdel Magied, Salah EL Din Hussien, Sahar Mohamed Zaki and Rania Mohamed EL Said. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Leaves and Heads Extracts as Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(1):60-68. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-1-10

Abstract

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae family), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of phenolic compounds. Two varieties of artichoke were used in this study Green Globe (G) and Violet (V). Five major active phenolic compounds were identified into the aqueous methanolic extracts of artichoke leaves and heads. These compounds were identified as Chlorogenic acid, Cynarin, 1, 5-di-o-Caffeoylquinic, luteolin and apigenin. On the other hand, the artichoke aqueous leaves extract (ALE) and aqueous heads extracts (AHE) for the two varieties were used as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic experiments by using albino rats. ALE was used in the concentration of (1.5 g/kg/day) for the two varieties. AHE was used in two different concentrations (1.5 and 3 g/kg/day). Rats were administrated orally by these different concentrations. Results show the effect of ALE and AHE extracts on the glucose level of diabetic rats. The superior effect was with G4 (Group No. 4) rats administrated 1.5 g LEG/kg/day (Leaves Extract of Green Globe). On the other hand results of the influence of artichoke leaves and heads as hypocholesterolemic action was in a positive way on the level of total cholesterol and reduced LDL and triglycerides levels and increased the level of glutathione peroxides, meanwhile it reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats serum. G3 (Group No. 3) [HFD (high fat diet) +1%cholesterol+1.5g LEG/kg/day] recorded the best results as hypocholesterolemic effect which could be attributed to their phenolic content. Our results indicated that, artichoke especially leaves extract of Green Globe (LEG) has good action as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic.

Keywords:
artichoke leave head hyperglycemic hypercholesterolemia rats

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, “Official Method of Analysis,” 17 th Edition, AOAC, USA: Washington, 1995.
 
[2]  Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, “Official Method of Analysis,” 17 th Edition, AOAC, USA: Washington, 2000.
 
[3]  Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, “Official Method of Analysis,” 2nd Edition, AOAC, USA: Washington, 2005
 
[4]  Bagri, P. Ali, M. Aeri, V. Bhowmik, M. and Sultana, S. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food Chemistry Toxicology 47: 50-54. 2009.
 
[5]  Basay, S. and Tokusoglu, O. The proximate composition and quality characteristics in artichoke (cynara scolymus L.) varieties developed with clonal selection. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 11: 584-587. 2013.
 
[6]  Brown, J.E. Rice-Evans, C.A. Luteolin-rich artichoke extracts protect low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radic Res 29:247-255. 1998.
 
[7]  Burstein, M.; Scholnick, H. and Morfin, R. Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. Journal Lipid Research, 11(6):583-595. 1970.
 
[8]  Bundy, R. Walker, A.F. Middleton, R.W. Wallis, C. and Simpson, H.C.R. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus L.) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 15:668-675. 2008.
 
[9]  Esterbauer, H. Gebicki, J. Puhl, H. and Jurgens, G. The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radic Biol Med 13: 341-390. 1992.
 
[10]  FAO, Food Agriculture Organization. The total world production of artichoke. www.fao.org. 2009.
 
[11]  Fantini, N. Colombo, G. Giori, A. Riva, A. Morazzoni, P. Bombardelli, E. and Carai, M. Evidence of glycemia-lowering effect by a cynara scolymus L. extract in normal and obese rats. Phytotherapy Research 25: 463-466. 2011.
 
[12]  Fassati, P. and Prencipe, L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinical Chemistry. 28: 2077-2080. 1982.
 
[13]  Fratianni, F. Tucci, M. De-Palma, M. Pepe, R. and Nazzaro, F. Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara Cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L) Fiori). Food Chemistry 104:1282-1286. 2007.
 
[14]  Fukumoto, L. R. and Mazza, G. Assessing antioxidant and proxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48:3597-3604. 2000.
 
[15]  Gebhardt, R. Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:279-286. 1997.
 
[16]  Gebhardt, R. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts is reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment. Phytother Res 16:368-372. 2002.
 
[17]  Goldberg, R.B. Lipid disorders in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 4: 561-572. 1981.
 
[18]  Guida, V. Ferrari, G. Pataro, G. Chambery, A. Di-Maro, A. and Parente, A. The effects of ohmic and conventional blanching on the nutritional bioactive compounds and quality parameters of artichoke heads. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 53: 569-579. 2013.
 
[19]  Gylling, H. Tuominen, J.A. Koivisto, V.A. and Miettinen, T.A. Cholesterol metabolism in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 53: 2217-2222. 2004.
 
[20]  Heidarian, E. and Soofiniya,Y. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aerial part of Cynara scolymus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(13) 2717-2723. 2011
 
[21]  Hosseinzadeh, M. Shekari, F. Janmohammadi, M. and Sabaghnia, N. Effect of sowing date and fliar application of salicylia acid on forage yields and quality of globe artichoke (cynara scolymus L.) Annales 8: 50-59. 2013.
 
[22]  Itabe, H. Oxidized low density lipoproteins: what is understood and what remains to be clarified. Biol Pharm Bull 26: 1-9. 2003.
 
[23]  Jimenez-Escrig, A. Dragsted, L. Daneshvar, B. Pulido, R. and Saura-Calixto, F. In vitro antioxidant of edible artichoke(cynara scolymus L.) and effect of biomarkers of antioxidant in rats. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51:5540-5545. 2003.
 
[24]  Joy, J. F. and Haber S. L. Clinical uses of artichoke leaf extract. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm., 64:1906-1909. 2007.
 
[25]  Justesen, U. and Knuthsen, P. Composition of flavonoids in frsh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes. Food Chemistry, 73:245-250. 2001.
 
[26]  Juzyszyn, Z. Czerny, B. Pawlik, A. and Drozdzik, M. The effect of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells. Phytother. Res. 22: 1159-1161. 2008.
 
[27]  Kraft, K. Artichoke leaf extracts: recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts. Phytomedicine 4:369. 1997.
 
[28]  Kuçukgergin, C. A. Aydın, A. F. Özdemirler-Erata, G. Mehmetçik, G. Koçak-Toke, N. and Uysal, M. Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Biol Trace Elem Res, 135:264-274. 2010.
 
[29]  Kukic, J. Popovic, V. Petrovic, S. Mucaji, P. Ciric, A. Stojkovic, D. and Sokovic, M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cynara cardunculus extracts. Food Chemistry, 107:861-868. 2008.
 
[30]  Kusku-Kiraz, Z. Mehmetcik, G. Dogru-Abbasglu, S. and Uysal, M. Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Phytotherapy Research 24: 565-570. 2010.
 
[31]  Lattanzio, V. Kroon, P. A. Linsalata, V. and Cardinali, A. Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of Functional Foods 1:131-144. 2009.
 
[32]  Llorach, R. Espin, J.C. Tomas-Barberan, F.A. and Ferreres, F. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 50:3458-3464. 2002.
 
[33]  Lutz, M. Henriquez, C. and Escobar, M. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of mature and baby artichokes (cynara scolymus L.) raw and cooked. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24: 49-54. 2011.
 
[34]  Mehmetçik, G. Özdemirler, G. Koçak-Toker, N. Cevikbaş, U. and Uysal, M. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stres. Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:475-480. 2008.
 
[35]  Nakajima, K. Nakano, T. and Tanaka, A. The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis: The comparison of atherogenic effects on oxidized LDL and remnant liopoproteins in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 367:36-47. 2006.
 
[36]  Ohkawa, H. Ohishi, N and Yagi, K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem., 95: 351-358. 1979.
 
[37]  Paglia, D.E. and Valentine, W.N. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70:158-169.1967.
 
[38]  Pandino, G. Lombardo, S. and Mauromicale, G. Globe artichoke leaves and floral stems as a source of bioactive compounds. Industrial Crops and Products, 44:44-49. 2013.
 
[39]  Pinto, M. S. Lajalo, F. M. and Genovese, M. I. Bioactive compounds and quantification of total ellagic acid in strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) Food Chemistry 107: 1629-1635. 2008.
 
[40]  Richmond, W. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. And its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clinical Chemistry, 19(12):1350-1356.1973.
 
[41]  Sanchez-Rabaneda, F. Jauregui, O. Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. Bastida, J. Viladomat, F. and Codina, C. Identification of phenolic compounds in artichoke waste by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry. J. of Chromatography A 1008: 57-72. 2003.
 
[42]  Schutz, K. Kammerer, D. Carle, R. and Schieber, A. Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (cynara scolymus L) heads, juice and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4090-4096. 2004.
 
[43]  Shen, Q. Dai, Z. and Yanbin, L. Rapid determination of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in cynara scolymus L by ultrafast liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry based on a fused core C18 column. Journal of separation science, 33:3152-3158. 2010.
 
[44]  Silva, C.G. Herdeiro, R.S. Mathias, C.J. Panek, A.D. Silveira, C.S. Rodrigues, V.P. Renno, M.N. Falcao, D.Q. Cerqueira, D.M. Minto, A.B. Nogueira, F.L. Quaresma, C.H. Silva, J.F. Menezes, F.S. and Eleutherio, E.C. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Brazilian plants. Pharmacol. Res. 52(3):229-233. 2005.
 
[45]  Smith, P.K. Krohn, R.I. Hermanson, G.T. Mallia, A.K. Gartner, F.H. Provenzano, M. Fujimoto, E.K. Goeke, N.M. Olson, B.J. and Klenk, D.C. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. Anal Biochem 150:76-85.1985.
 
[46]  Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. Statistical methods. Oxford and J. B. H Publishing Com. 7th edition. 1980.
 
[47]  Trinders, P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Annala of Clin. Biochem. 6: 24-33.1969.
 
[48]  Wang, M. F. Simon, J. E. Aviles, I. F. He, K. Zheng, Q. Y. and Tadmor, Y. Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 601-608. 2003.
 
[49]  Wider, B. Pittler, M. H. Thompson-Coon, J. and Ernst, E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. Cochane Database Syst Rev. 4: CD003335. 2009.
 
[50]  Wieland, H. and Seidel, D. A. simple specific method for precipitation of low density lipoproteins. Journal of Lipid Research, 24(7):904.1983.
 
[51]  Zapolska-Downar, D. Zapolska-Downar, A. Naruszewicz, M. Siennicka, A. Krasnodebska, B. and Kolodziej, B. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against oxidative stress induced in cultered endothelial cells and monocytes. Life Sci 71: 2897-2908. 2002.
 
[52]  Zheng, W. and Wang, S. Y. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49: 5165-5170. 2001.
 
[53]  Zhu, X. Zhang, H. and Lo, R. Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). and their antimicrobial activities. J Agric Food Chem 52: 7272-7278. 2004.