Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(10), 670-674
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-10-9
Open AccessArticle

Potential Genitourinary Toxicity and Lithogenic Effect of Ractopamine

Wen-Chi Chen1, 2, Yu-Chi Wang3, Jui-Lung Shen4, 5, Huey-Yi Chen1, 2, Chiao-Hui Chang1, 2, Fuu-Jen Tsai1, 2, Wei-Yong Lin1, 2 and Yung-Hsiang Chen1, 6,

1Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

2Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan

3Department of Animal Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan

4Center for General Education, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan

5Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veteran General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan

6Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan;Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan

Pub. Date: December 29, 2015

Cite this paper:
Wen-Chi Chen, Yu-Chi Wang, Jui-Lung Shen, Huey-Yi Chen, Chiao-Hui Chang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wei-Yong Lin and Yung-Hsiang Chen. Potential Genitourinary Toxicity and Lithogenic Effect of Ractopamine. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(10):670-674. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-10-9

Abstract

Ractopamine is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist that excites sympathetic nerves. It has been used to increase cattle weight, for breeding, and to enhance muscle content in some countries. The concentration allowed in the environment is below 10 parts per billion (ppb). However, there are increasing concerns about the effect of long-term ractopamine on health. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a “safe” dosage of ractopamine on urinary tract by using genitourinary cell cultures and our well-established translational model, Drosophila melanogaster. The results showed that ractopamine dose-dependently induces cytotoxicity in SV40 MES 13 and SV-HUC-1 cells. After 21 days of 10 ppb ractopamine administration, the rate of crystal formation in the ractopamine group significantly increased. We also found that long-term administration of ractopamine to flies decreases their climbing ability and shortens their lifespan. Overall, the long-term effects of ractopamine on the urinary tract system were evident in our cell and animal studies. In particular, renal mesangial and urothelial cells are more susceptible to damage; urolithiasis and neurological damage are other possible side effects of ractopamine. These effects on the human urinary tract should be further investigated.

Keywords:
climbing ability drosophila genitourinary cells ractopamine urolithiasis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  I. Ntshepang Makabanyane, R. Victress Ndou, and C. Njie Ateba, “Genotypic Characterization of Shigella Species Isolated from Abattoirs in the North West Province, South Africa Using PCR Analysis,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 3 (2). 121-125. 2015.
 
[2]  X. Wang, and L. Xu, “Influence Factors on the Formation of Acrylamide in the Amino Acid/Sugar Chemical Model System,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2 (7). 344-348. 2014.
 
[3]  P. Wu, C. Cai, D. Yang, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Shen, B. Ma, and J. Tan, “Changes of Ethyl Carbamate in Yellow Rice Wine during Shelf-Life and Formation in Simulated Ethanol and Urea Solutions,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2 (12). 872-875. 2014.
 
[4]  T. J. Centner, J. C. Alvey, and A. M. Stelzleni, “Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade,” Journal of Animal Science, 92 (9). 4234-4240. 2014.
 
[5]  F. A. O. W. H. O. E. C. o. F. A. Joint, “Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives,” World Health Organization Technical Report Series, (939). 1-80, backcover. 2006.
 
[6]  A. J. Garmyn, and M. F. Miller, “MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability,” Journal of Animal Science, 92 (1). 10-20. 2014.
 
[7]  J. H. Li, W. J. Yu, Y. H. Lai, and Y. C. Ko, “Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management,” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 28 (7 Suppl). S10-16. 2012.
 
[8]  M. J. Yaeger, K. Mullin, S. M. Ensley, W. A. Ware, and R. E. Slavin, “Myocardial toxicity in a group of greyhounds administered ractopamine,” Veterinary Pathology, 49 (3). 569-573. 2012.
 
[9]  D. J. Smith, and W. L. Shelver, “Tissue residues of ractopamine and urinary excretion of ractopamine and metabolites in animals treated for 7 days with dietary ractopamine,” Journal of Animal Science, 80 (5). 1240-1249. 2002.
 
[10]  D. T. Loo, and J. R. Rillema, “Measurement of cell death,” Methods in Cell Biology, 57. 251-264. 1998.
 
[11]  W. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, F. J. Tsai, K. M. Man, J. L. Shen, and Y. H. Chen, “Melamine-induced urolithiasis in a Drosophila model,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (10). 2753-2757. 2012.
 
[12]  Y. H. Chen, H. P. Liu, H. Y. Chen, F. J. Tsai, C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and W. C. Chen, “Ethylene glycol induces calcium oxalate crystal deposition in Malpighian tubules: a Drosophila model for nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis,” Kidney International, 80 (4). 369-377. 2011.
 
[13]  C. Y. Ho, Y. H. Chen, P. Y. Wu, C. H. Chang, H. Y. Chen, K. M. Man, J. L. Shen, F. J. Tsai, W. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and W. C. Chen, “Effects of commercial citrate-containing juices on urolithiasis in a Drosophila model,” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 29 (9). 488-493. 2013.
 
[14]  S. Y. Wu, J. L. Shen, K. M. Man, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Chen, K. S. Tsai, F. J. Tsai, W. Y. Lin, and W. C. Chen, “An emerging translational model to screen potential medicinal plants for nephrolithiasis, an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. 972958. 2014.
 
[15]  G. Orso, A. Martinuzzi, M. G. Rossetto, E. Sartori, M. Feany, and A. Daga, “Disease-related phenotypes in a Drosophila model of hereditary spastic paraplegia are ameliorated by treatment with vinblastine,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115 (11). 3026-3034. 2005.
 
[16]  J. L. Podratz, N. P. Staff, D. Froemel, A. Wallner, F. Wabnig, A. J. Bieber, A. Tang, and A. J. Windebank, “Drosophila melanogaster: a new model to study cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity,” Neurobiology of Disease, 43 (2). 330-337. 2011.
 
[17]  X. Liu, D. K. Grandy, and A. Janowsky, “Ractopamine, a livestock feed additive, is a full agonist at trace amine-associated receptor 1,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 350 (1). 124-129. 2014.
 
[18]  D. B. Hausman, R. J. Martin, E. L. Veenhuizen, and D. B. Anderson, “Effect of ractopamine on insulin sensitivity and response of isolated rat adipocytes,” Journal of Animal Science, 67 (6). 1455-1464. 1989.
 
[19]  H. Gao, J. Han, S. Yang, Z. Wang, L. Wang, and Z. Fu, “Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol,” Analytica Chimica Acta, 839. 91-96. 2014.
 
[20]  J. Wang, Y. She, M. Wang, M. Jin, Y. Li, J. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Multiresidue Method for Analysis of beta Agonists in Swine Urine by Enzyme Linked Receptor Assay Based on beta2 Adrenergic Receptor Expressed in HEK293 Cells,” PloS One, 10 (9). e0139176. 2015.
 
[21]  R. E. Slavin, and M. J. Yaeger, “Segmental arterial mediolysis--an iatrogenic vascular disorder induced by ractopamine,” Cardiovascular Pathology, 21 (4). 334-338. 2012.
 
[22]  E. J. Lezama, A. A. Konkar, M. M. Salazar-Bookaman, D. D. Miller, and D. R. Feller, “Pharmacological study of atypical beta-adrenoceptors in rat esophageal smooth muscle,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 308 (1). 69-80. 1996.
 
[23]  W. E. Colbert, P. D. Williams, and G. D. Williams, “Beta-adrenoceptor profile of ractopamine HCl in isolated smooth and cardiac muscle tissues of rat and guinea-pig,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 43 (12). 844-847. 1991.
 
[24]  F. Yang, P. Wang, R. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Su, Y. He, L. Shi, and D. Yao, “Label free electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of ractopamine,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 77. 347-352. 2015.
 
[25]  S. H. Liou, G. C. Yang, C. L. Wang, and Y. H. Chiu, “Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 277. 169-179. 2014.
 
[26]  Z. Zhuang, Y. Zhao, Q. Wu, M. Li, H. Liu, L. Sun, W. Gao, and D. Wang, “Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism,” PloS One, 9 (1). e85482. 2014.