Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(10), 641-647
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-10-4
Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Vinegar of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in Liquid State Fermentation

Songshan Qiu1, Yanan Wang1, Rujin Zhou1, , Aiguo Yin1 and Tian Zhou1

1Development Center of Technology for Fruit & Vegetable Storage and Processing Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, China

Pub. Date: December 09, 2015

Cite this paper:
Songshan Qiu, Yanan Wang, Rujin Zhou, Aiguo Yin and Tian Zhou. Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Vinegar of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in Liquid State Fermentation. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(10):641-647. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-10-4


In order to enhance the value of industry application of litchi, fermentation experiment of litchi vinegar was conducted to optimize process parameters. The technology of alcohol fermentation was carried out to investigate the effects of parameters such as original sugar content, yeast inoculation amount, pH value and fermentation temperature. A Box-Behnken experimental design of 3-factor and 3-level was used to build the secondary multivariate regression model related to the yield of acid including inoculation amount, original alcohol content and fermentation temperature, and explore the effect of process parameters of acetic acid fermentation above on the yield of acid in the light of response surface plots. Finally the fermentation process of its acetic acid fermentation was optimized using Box-Behnken methodology. Results were as follows. The optimal process of its alcohol fermentation was as follows: original sugar content, 16%; yeast inoculation amount, 5%; pH value, 3.5 and fermentation temperature, 30~32 °C. The optimal process of its acetic acid fermentation optimized by response surface methodology was as follows: inoculation amount, 10%; original alcohol content, 7.0% and fermentation temperature, 30 °C, in the optimal condition the yield of acetic acid was 52.45 g/L. The secondary multivariate regression model showed as follows. The effects of inoculation amount and original alcohol content were non-significant, and that of fermentation temperature extremely significant. The interaction of inoculation amount and original alcohol content was extremely significant. In conclusion, the regression model was accurate and reliable; the optimal fermentation technology of litchi vinegar was advisable.

litchi vinegar fermentation process optimization

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Sui JQ, Hua H, Jia YH, Wang QY, Wei QY. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) seed water extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obse natural additive in meat products. Food Cont. 50: 195-201. 2015.
[2]  Wen LG, Wu D, Prasad NK, Jiang YM, Lin S, Jiang GX, He JR, Zhao MM, Luo W, Yang B. Identification of flavonoids in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) leaf and evaluation of anticancer activtties. J. Funct. Foods, 6: 555-563. 2014.
[3]  Bhat RS, Aldaihan S. Antimicrobial activities of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 26(1): 79-82. 2014.
[4]  Su DX, Ti HH, Zhang RF, Zhang MW, Wei ZC, Deng YY, Guo JX. Structural elucidation and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of major antioxidant phenolics in lychee pulp. Food Chem. 158: 385-391. 2014.
[5]  Yang YC, Sun DW, Wang NN. Rapid detection of browning levels of lychee pericarp as affected by moisture contents using hyperspectral imaging. Comp. Electro. Agric. 113: 203-212. 2015.
[6]  Wall MM. Ascorbic acid and mineral composition of longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchi chinensis) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown in Hawaii. J. Food Compos Analy. 19(6-7): 655-663. 2016.
[7]  Ahmad A, Alkharfy KM, Wani TA, Raish M. Application of Box–Behnken design for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 72: 990-997. 2015.
[8]  Dueñas IMS, Hornero JEJ, Rodriguez AMC, Garcia IG. Modeling and optimization of acetic acid fermentation: A polynomial-based approach. Biochem. Eng. J. 99:35-43. 2015.
[9]  Zhang Y, Li KW, Yang K, Fan X, Zhang MG. Optimization of vinegar-steaming process for Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) with response surface method. J. Trade. China. Med. 33(5): 682-685. 2013.
[10]  Berenguer M, Vegara S, Barrajón E, Saura D, Valero M, Martí N. Physicochemical characterization of pomegranate wines fermented with three different Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Food Chem. 190: 848-855. 2015.
[11]  Papotti G, Bertelli D, Graziosi R, Maietti A, Tedeschi P, Marchetti A, Plessi M. Traditional balsamic vinegar and balsamic vinegar of Modena analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. LWT-Food Sci Tech. 60(2): 1017-1024. 2015.
[12]  Hidalgo C, Torija MJ, Mas A, Mateo E. Effect of inoculation on strawberry fermentation and acidification processes using native strains of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. Food Micro. 34(1): 88-94. 2013.
[13]  Wang YA, Qiu SS, Zhou RJ, Jiang CC. Optimization on fermentation conditions of orange vinegar by Box-Behnken design. Agric. Sci. Tech. 16(9): 2020-2024. 2015.
[14]  Yolmeh M, Najafi MBH, Farhoosh R. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM). Food Chem. 155: 319-324. 2014.
[15]  Ilaiyarajaa N, Likhithb KB, Babua GRS, Khanum F. Optimisation of extraction of bioactive compounds from Feronia limonia (wood apple) fruit using response surface methodology (RSM). Food Chem. 173: 348-354. 2015.
[16]  Myles S. Improving fruit and wine: what does genomics have to offer?. Trends in Genetics. 29(4): 190-196. 2013.
[17]  Chen D, Liu SQ. Impact of simultaneous and sequential fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on non-volatiles and volatiles of lychee wines. LWT - Food Sci Tech. 65: 53-61. 2016.
[18]  Tristezza M, Feo L, Tufariello M, Grieco F, Capozzi V, Spano G, Mita G, Grieco F. Simultaneous inoculation of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria: Effects on fermentation dynamics and chemical composition of Negroamaro wine. LWT-Food Sci. Tech. 66: 406-412. 2016.
[19]  Raposo R, Moreno MJR, Cerdán TG, Puertas B, Rojas JMM, Diago AG, Guerrero RF, Ortiz V, Villar EC. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine. Food Chem. 192: 25-33. 2016.
[20]  Turrillas FAE, Agulló C, Somovilla AA, Mercader JV, Fuentes AA. Fungicide multiresidue monitoring in international wines by immunoassays. Food Chem. 196: 1279-1286. 2016.
[21]  Chen D, Yap ZY, Liu SQ. Evaluation of the performance of Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis saturnus, and Kluyveromyces lactis in lychee wine fermentation. Inter. J. Food Microbiol. 206: 45-50. 2015.
[22]  Kondapalli N, Sadineni V, Variyar P S, Sharma A, Obulam VSR. Impact of γ-irradiation on antioxidant capacity of mango (Mangifera indica L.) wine from eight Indian cultivars and the protection of mango wine against DNA damage caused by irradiation. Process Biochem. 49(11): 1819-1830. 2014.
[23]  Cao PF, Liu QE. Study on the Saccharification Process of Citrus Vinegar by Fruit-Grain Mixed Fermentation. Agric. Biotech. 4(3): 14-19. 2015.
[24]  Ndoye B, Lebecque S, Dauphin RD, Tounkara L, Guiro AT, Kere C, Diawara B, Thonart P. Thermoresistant properties of acetic acids bacteria isolated from tropical products of Sub-Saharan Africa and destined to industrial vinegar. Enzyme. Microb. Technol. 39(4): 916-923. 2006.
[25]  Roger JH, Romero CD, Martín JD. A comprehensive study of red wine properties according to variety. Food Chem. 196: 1224-1231. 2016.
[26]  Lourido DS, Saurina J, Cassou SH, Checa A. Classification and characterisation of Spanish red wines according to their appellation of origin based on chromatographic profiles and chemometric data analysis. Food Chem. 135(3): 1425-1431. 2012.
[27]  Senanayake SPJN, Shahidi F. Lipase catalyzed incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in to borage oil: optimization using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 77: 115-123. 2002.
[28]  He GQ, Kong Q, Dingm LX. Response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation medium of Clostridium butyricum. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 39: 363-368. 2004.
[29]  Shirai K, Guerrero I, Huerta S, Saucedo G, Castillo A, Gorzalez RO, Hall GM. Effect of initial glucose concentration and inoculum level of lactic acid bacteria in shrimp waste ensilation. Enz. Microb. Technol. 28: 446-452. 2001.
[30]  Boyaci IH. A new approach of determination of enzyme kinetic constants using response surface methodology. Biochem. Eng. J. 25: 55-62. 2005.
[31]  Carvalho JCM, Vitolo M, Sato S, Aquarone E. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane black strap molasses through a feed batch process: optimization by response surface methodology. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 110: 151-164. 2003.
[32]  Zhang Y, Li KW, YangK, Fan X, Zhang MX. Optimization of vinegar-steaming process for Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) with response surface method. J. Tradit. Chin. Med. 33(5): 682-685. 2013.
[33]  Chen CX, Chen FS. Study on the conditions to brew rice vinegar with high content of γ-amino butyric acid by response surfacemethodology. Food Bioprod. Process. 87(4): 334-340. 2009.
[34]  Liu YM, Bai WD, Lu ZM, Zheng H. Optimization of acetic acid fermentation parameters for production of persimmon vinegar. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 24(4): 257-260. 2008.
[35]  Dueñas IMS, Hornero JEJ, Rodriguez AMC, Garcia IG. Modeling and optimization of acetic acid fermentation: A polynomial-based approach. Biochem. Eng. J. 9: 35-43. 2015.