Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(9), 593-598
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-6
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Cold Storage of Various Pomegranate Cultivars Fruit Juices on Health Promoting Compounds and Their Activities

Sercan Karav1, 2, , Ardic O. Arikal3 and Aziz Eksi1

1Department of Food Engineering, Ankara University, Diskapi, Ankara-TURKEY

2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis-CA, USA

3Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis-CA, USA

Pub. Date: November 20, 2015

Cite this paper:
Sercan Karav, Ardic O. Arikal and Aziz Eksi. Effect of Cold Storage of Various Pomegranate Cultivars Fruit Juices on Health Promoting Compounds and Their Activities. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(9):593-598. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-9-6


In this study, the total anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and phenolic content in sixteen different pomegranate cultivars are reported as 2.6-11.6, 3.2-13.6 and 956.5-2450.3 mg/100 g, respectively. Total soluble solid content varied between 12.10-18.10Brix, whereas pH and % titratable acidity values were within the range of 2.87-4.65, and 0.27-3.39, respectively. Total sugar values were ranged 9.6-22.1 g/100g. The total antioxidant capacity of pomegranate cultivars were found to be 2.54-12.4 (ABTS), 5.5-36.2 (DPPH) and 3.9-26.7 (FRAP) µmol TE/g fw. A high correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanins (r2= 0.94), ascorbic acid (r2=0.75) and phenolic content (r2=0.94) was observed. Moreover, total anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents and the antioxidant capacity of four pomegranate cultivars were monitored at the refrigeration temperature for two months. It was shown that ascorbic acid concentrations of the samples significantly decreased during storage, while there was no degradation could be observed in total phenolic concentrations. The degradation of total anthocyanins of Mersin 23 and Mugla 1267 cultivars during storage resulted in a dramatic decrease in the total antioxidant capacity of these samples from 12.36 to 5.6 (µmol TE/g fw) and 9.9 to 5.3 (µmol TE/g fw), respectively. These results demonstrated that ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds are the main contributors for initial total antioxidant capacity and the difference between the cultivars are significant. However, degradation of ascorbic acid was shown to have no significant effect on the total antioxidant capacity unlike the total anthocyanins and phenolic compounds.

pomegranate antioxidant capacity phenolic content

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M and Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology, 2007. 39(1): p. 44-84.
[2]  Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy reviews, 2010. 4(8): p. 118.
[3]  Syndicate, N., Free radicals and antioxidants in health and disease. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 1998. 4(2): p. 351.
[4]  Halliwell, B. Free radicals, proteins and DNA: oxidative damage versus redox regulation. Biochemical Society Transactions, 1996. 24(4): p. 1023-1027.
[5]  Adibhatla, R.M. and J. Hatcher. Phospholipase A2, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation in CNS pathologies. BMB reports, 2008. 41(8): p. 560.
[6]  Rock, C.L., R.A. Jacob, and P.E. Bowen. Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and the carotenoids. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1996. 96(7): p. 693-702.
[7]  Sergent O, Griffon B and Morel I. Effect of nitric oxide on ironmediated oxidative stress in primary rat hepatocyte culture. Hepatology, 1997. 25(1): p. 122-127.
[8]  orel I, Lescoat G and Cogrel P. Antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the flavonoids catechin, quercetin and diosmetin on iron-loaded rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochemical pharmacology, 1993. 45(1): p. 13-19.
[9]  Devasagayam T, Tilak J, Boloor K, Sane KS, Ghaskadbi SS, Lele R. Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. Japi, 2004. 52(794804): p. 4.
[10]  Krinsky, N.I., Mechanism of action of biological antioxidants. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1992. 200(2): p. 248-254.
[11]  Lü JM, Lin PH, Yao Q, Chen C. Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: experimental approaches and model systems. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 2010. 14(4): p. 840-860.
[12]  Karav, S. and A. Eksi, Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of peach and apricot cultivars harvested from different regions of Turkey. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Science, 2012. 1(13).
[13]  Shukla S, Mehta A, John J, Singh S, Mehta P, Vyas SP. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2009. 47(8): p. 1848-1851.
[14]  Bouayed, J. and T. Bohn, Exogenous antioxidants—double-edged swords in cellular redox state: health beneficial effects at physiologic doses versus deleterious effects at high doses. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2010. 3(4): p. 228-237.
[15]  Wang, H., G. Cao, and R.L. Prior, Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1996. 44(3): p. 701-705.
[16]  Wang, S.Y. and H.-S. Lin, Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2000. 48(2): p. 140-146.
[17]  Cao, G., E. Sofic, and R.L. Prior, Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 1996. 44(11): p. 3426-3431.
[18]  Prior RL, Cao G, Martin A. Antioxidant capacity as influenced by total phenolic and anthocyanin content, maturity, and variety of Vaccinium species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998. 46(7): p. 2686-2693.
[19]  Ozgen M, Durgaç C, Serçe S, Kaya C Chemical and antioxidant properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Food Chemistry, 2008. 111(3): p. 703-706.
[20]  Holland, D., K. Hatib, and I. Bar-Ya'akov, 2 Pomegranate: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding. Horticultural reviews, 2009. 35(2): p. 127-191.
[21]  Al-Maiman, S.A. and D. Ahmad, Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation. Food Chemistry, 2002. 76(4): p. 437-441.
[22]  Mirdehghan, S.H. and M. Rahemi, Seasonal changes of mineral nutrients and phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 2007. 111(2): p. 120-127.
[23]  Miguel Gß, Fontes C, Antunes D, Neves A, Martins D. Anthocyanin concentration of ‚ÄúAssaria‚Äù pomegranate fruits during different cold storage conditions. BioMed Research International, 2004. 2004(5): p. 338-342.
[24]  Fadavi A, Barzegar M, Azizi M, Bayat M. Note. Physicochemical composition of ten pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) grown in Iran. Food Science and Technology International, 2005. 11(2): p. 113-119.
[25]  Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Mukhtar H. Pomegranate Fruit Extract Modulates UVB–mediated Phosphorylation of Mitogenactivated Protein Kinases and Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2005. 81(1): p. 38-45.
[26]  Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Mukhtar H. Anthocyaninand hydrolyzable tanninrich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF‐κB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD1 mice. International Journal of Cancer, 2005. 113(3): p. 423-433.
[27]  Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Kaplan M, Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Drugs under experimental and clinical research, 2001. 28(2-3): p. 49-62.
[28]  Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 2005. 16(6): p. 360-367.
[29]  Ferreira, D., Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L. L. Planta Med, 2007. 73(5): p. 461.
[30]  Li Y, Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Xu J, Cheng S. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food chemistry, 2006. 96(2): p. 254-260.
[31]  Negi, P. and G. Jayaprakasha, Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. Journal of food science, 2003. 68(4): p. 1473-1477.
[32]  Kaur, C. and H.C. Kapoor, Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables–the millennium’s health. International journal of food science & technology, 2001. 36(7): p. 703-725.
[33]  Moyer RA, Hummer KE, Finn CE, Frei B, Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: Vaccinium, Rubus, and Ribes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002. 50(3): p. 519-525.
[34]  Velioglu Y, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah B. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 1998. 46(10): p. 4113-4117.
[35]  Ranganna, S., Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetable products. 1977.
[36]  Ruck, J., Chemical methods for analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Chemical methods for analysis of fruit and vegetable products., 1963.
[37]  Lee, J., R.W. Durst, and R.E. Wrolstad, Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC international, 2005. 88(5): p. 1269-1278.
[38]  Singleton, V. and J.A. Rossi, Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1965. 16(3): p. 144-158.
[39]  Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free radical biology and medicine, 1999. 26(9): p. 1231-1237.
[40]  Brand-Williams, W., M. Cuvelier, and C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 1995. 28(1): p. 25-30.
[41]  Benzie, I.F. and J. Strain, The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical biochemistry, 1996. 239(1): p. 70-76.
[42]  Türkmen, İ. and A. Ekşi, Brix degree and sorbitol/xylitol level of authentic pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice. Food chemistry, 2011. 127(3): p. 1404-1407.
[43]  Bekir J, Mars M, Vicendo P, Fterrich A, Bouajila J. Chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferation activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers. Journal of medicinal food, 2013. 16(6): p. 544-550.
[44]  Surek, E. and D. Nilufer-Erdil, Changes in phenolics and antioxidant activity at each step of processing from pomegranate into nectar. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 2014. 65(2): p. 194-202.
[45]  Singh, R., K. Chidambara Murthy, and G. Jayaprakasha, Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2002. 50(1): p. 81-86.
[46]  Plumb G, de Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Williamson G. Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel. Redox Report, 2002. 7(1): p. 41-46.
[47]  Noda Y, Kaneyuki T, Mori A, Packer L. Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002. 50(1): p. 166-171.
[48]  Gil MI, Tom√°s-Barber√°n FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2000. 48(10): p. 4581-4589.
[49]  Gómez-Caravaca AM, Verardo V, Toselli M, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Caboni MF. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2013. 61(22): p. 5328-5337.
[50]  Elfalleh W, Tlili N, Nasri N. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits. Journal of Food Science, 2011. 76(5): p. C707-C713.
[51]  Fischer, U.A., R. Carle, and D.R. Kammerer, Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC-DAD–ESI/MS n. Food Chemistry, 2011. 127(2): p. 807-821.
[52]  Gözlekçi Ş, Saraçoğlu O, Onursal E, Özgen M. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars. Pharmacognosy magazine, 2011. 7(26): p. 161.
[53]  Borochov-Neori H, Lazarovitch N, Judeinstein S, Patil B, Holland D. Climate and salinity effects on color and health promoting properties in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit arils. in Tropical and subtropical fruits: flavors, color, and health benefits. ACS symposium series. 2013.
[54]  Dudonne S, Vitrac X, Coutiere P, Woillez M, Mérillon J-M. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009. 57(5): p. 1768-1774.
[55]  Ozgen M, Reese RN, Tulio AZ, Scheerens JC, Miller AR. Modified 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method to measure antioxidant capacity of selected small fruits and comparison to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006. 54(4): p. 1151-1157.
[56]  Kalt W, Forney CF, Martin A, Prior RL. Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 1999. 47(11): p. 4638-44.
[57]  Pantelidis G, Vasilakakis M, Manganaris G, Diamantidis G. Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry, 2007. 102(3): p. 777-783.
[58]  Orak, H.H.l., Total antioxidant activities, phenolics, anthocyanins, polyphenoloxidase activities of selected red grape cultivars and their correlations. Scientia Horticulturae, 2007. 111(3): p. 235-241.
[59]  Mirsaeedghazi, H., Z. Emam-Djomeh, and R. Ahmadkhaniha, Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice. Journal of food science and technology: p. 1-5.