Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(7), 471-477
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-7-9
Open AccessArticle

Preparation of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Protein Hydrolysate Using Combined Controlled Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Glycation for Improved Solubility and Emulsifying Properties

Jianhua Liu1, Fei Lyu1, Xuxia Zhou1, Bin Wang1, Xinping Wang1 and Yuting Ding1,

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Ocean College, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, P. R. China

Pub. Date: September 18, 2015

Cite this paper:
Jianhua Liu, Fei Lyu, Xuxia Zhou, Bin Wang, Xinping Wang and Yuting Ding. Preparation of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Protein Hydrolysate Using Combined Controlled Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Glycation for Improved Solubility and Emulsifying Properties. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(7):471-477. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-7-9


Preparation of the hydrolysate from under-utilized skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) protein with improved functional properties using combined controlled enzymatic hydrolysis and glycation was investigated. Five enzymes including alcalase, flavorase, neutrase, trypsin and protamex were performed to hydrolysis under the optimum conditions. The results showed that 5-hour hydrolysis led to increases in degree of hydrolysis (DH) and amino acids content, and change in soluble protein content. To obtain considerable small-size peptides, a controlled enzymatic hydrolysis (2.5 h) by trypsin was carried out. This condition produced nearly 80% soluble protein which could not be precipitated by 10% TCA. The resulting hydrolysate was then subjected to glycation with alginate at 60 °C and 65% relative humidity for 3 hours. Functional properties assay showed that glycation significantly increased (P<0.05) the solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI). This work suggested that the controlled enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with glycation would effectively improve the functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates.

fish protein hydrolysates skipjack tuna enzymatic hydrolysis glycation solubility emulsifying properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Gehring CK, Gigliotti JC, Moritz JS, Tou JC, Jaczynski J. Functional and nutritional characteristics of proteins and lipids recovered by isoelectric processing of fish by-products and low-value fish: A review. Food Chemistry, 124:422-431. 2011.
[2]  Klompong V, Benjakul S, Kantachote D, Shahidi F. Antioxidative activity and functional properties of protein hydrolysate of yellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis and enzyme type. Food Chemistry, 102:1317-1327. 2007.
[3]  Gildberg A. Enhancing returns from greater utilization In Safety and Quality Issues in Fish Processing, Bremner, H.A. (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited: Cambridge, U. K., pp 425-449. 2002.
[4]  Pornchaloempong P, Sirisomboon P, Nunak N. Mass-volume-area properties of frozen skipjack tuna. International Journal of Food Properties, 15:605-612. 2010.
[5]  The western and central Pacific tuna fishery (2010) 2010 overview and status of stocks.
[6]  Klomklao S, Kishimura H, Nonami Y, Benjakul S. Biochemical properties of two isoforms of trypsin purified from the intestine of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Food Chemistry, 115:155-162. 2009.
[7]  Nalinanon S, Benjakul S, Kishimura H. Purification and biochemical properties of pepsins from the stomach of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). European Food Research and Technology, 231:259-269. 2010.
[8]  Kristinsson HG. Aquatic food protein hydrolysates. In Maximising the Value of Marine by-Products, Shahidi F., editor. Woodhead. Publishing Ltd. 2007.
[9]  Intarasirisawat R, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Wu JP. Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe. Food Chemistry, 135:3039-3048. 2012.
[10]  Pires C, Clemente T, Batista I. Functional and antioxidative properties of protein hydrolysates from Cape hake by-products prepared by three different methodologies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93:771-780. 2013.
[11]  Gbogouri GA, Linder M, Fanni J, Parmentier M. Influence of hydrolysis degree on the functional properties of salmon byproducts hydrolysates. J of Food Science, 69:C615-C622. 2004.
[12]  Kristinsson HG, Rasco BA. Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40:43-81. 2000.
[13]  Liu JH, Ru QM, Ding YT. Glycation a promising method for food protein modification: Physicochemical properties and structure, a review. Food Research International, 49:170-183. 2012.
[14]  Saeki H, Inoue K. Improved solubility of carp myofibrillar proteins in low ionic strength medium by glycosylation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45:3419-4381. 1997.
[15]  Sato R, Katayama S, Sawabe T, Saeki H. Stability and emulsion-forming ability of water-soluble fish myofibrillar protein prepared by conjugation with alginate oligosaccharide. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51:4376-4381. 2003.
[16]  Decourcelle N, Sabourin C, Dauer G, Guérard F. Effect of the Maillard reaction with xylose on the emulsifying properties of a shrimp hydrolysate (Pandalus borealis). Food Research International, 43:2155-2160. 2010.
[17]  Zhang JB, Wu NN, Yang XQ, He XT, Wang LJ. Improvement of emulsifying properties of Maillard reaction products from β-conglycinin and dextran using controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. Food Hydrocolloids, 28:301-312. 2012.
[18]  Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37:911-917. 1959.
[19]  Hoyle NT, Merritt JH. Quality of fish protein hydrolysates from herring (Clupea harengus). Journal of Food Science, 59:76-79. 1994.
[20]  AOAC. Official methods of analysis (16th ed.). Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1990.
[21]  Layne E. Spectrophotometric and turbidimetric methods for measuring proteins. In Methods in Ensymology; New York: Academic, pp 450. 1957.
[22]  Pearce KN, Kinsella JE. Emulsifying properties of proteins: evaluation of a turbidimetric technique. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26:716-723. 1978.
[23]  Zhao Q, Xiong H, Selomulya C, Chen XD, Zhong HL, Wang SQ, Sun WJ, Zhou Q. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice dreg protein, Effects of enzyme type on the functional properties and antioxidant activities of recovered proteins. Food Chemistry, 134:1360-1367. 2012.
[24]  Sivaraman T, Kumar TKS. The mechanism of 2, 2, 2-trichloroacetic acid-induced protein precipitation. Journal of Protein Chemistry, 16:291-297. 1997.
[25]  Greenberg NA, Shipe WF. Comparison of the abilities of yrichloroacetic, picric, sulfosalicylic and tungstic acids to precipitate protein hydrolysates and proteins. Journal of Food Science, 44: 735-737. 1979.
[26]  Petersen BR. The impact of the enzymatic hydrolysis process on recovery and use of proteins. In Enzymes and Food Processing; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers: London, U.K., pp 149-175. 1981.
[27]  Kristinsson HG, Rasco BA. Biochemical and functional properties of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) muscle proteins hydrolyzed with various alkaline proteases. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48:657-666. 2000.
[28]  Nalinanon S, Benjakul S, Kishimura H, Shahidi F. Functionalities and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates from the muscle of ornate threadfin bream treated with pepsin from skipjack tuna. Food Chemistry, 124:1354-1362. 2011.
[29]  Mutilangi WAM, Panyam D, Kilara A. Functional properties of hydrolysates from proteolysis of heat-denatured whey protein isolate. Journal of Food Science, 61:270-274, 303. 1996.
[30]  Pacheco-Aguilar R, Mazorra-Manzano MA, Ramírez-Suárez JC. Functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus) muscle produced by a commercial protease. Food Chemistry, 109:782-789. 2008.
[31]  Saeki H. Preparation of neoglycoprotein from carp myofibrillar protein by Maillard reaction with glucose: biochemical properties and emulsifying properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45:680-684. 1997.
[32]  Nakamura S, Ogawa M, Nakai S, Kato A, Kitts DD. Antioxidant activity of a Maillardtype phosvitin-galactomannan conjugate with emulsifying activity and heat stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46:3958-3963. 1998.
[33]  Oliver CM, Melton LD, Stanley RA. Creating proteins with novel functionality via the Maillard reaction: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:337-350. 2006.