Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(2), 109-113
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6
Open AccessArticle

Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis

Kao-Sung Tsai1, 2, Yung-Hsiang Chen1, 3, Jui-Lung Shen4, 5, Kee-Ming Man6, 7, Sun-Yuan Wu1, Huey-Yi Chen1, 8, Chiao-Hui Chang1, 8, Yuan-Ju Lee9, Tzu-Fang Hsu10, Fuu-Jen Tsai1, 8, Wei-Yong Lin1, 8 and Wen-Chi Chen1, 8,

1School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

2Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan

3Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

4Center for General Education, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

5Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veteran General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

6Department of Medicinal Botanicals and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, Changhua, Taiwan

7Department of Anesthesiology, Tungs’ Taichung Harbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

8Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

9Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

10Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, Taiwan

Pub. Date: February 11, 2015

Cite this paper:
Kao-Sung Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Jui-Lung Shen, Kee-Ming Man, Sun-Yuan Wu, Huey-Yi Chen, Chiao-Hui Chang, Yuan-Ju Lee, Tzu-Fang Hsu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Wei-Yong Lin and Wen-Chi Chen. Does Chronic Cola Consumption Increase Urinary Stone Risk? Evidence from the Drosophila Model of Urolithiasis. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(2):109-113. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-2-6


There are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other metabolic problems. Sodium citrate (Na-citrate) is used as an additive in colas and various commercial drinks worldwide. Although potassium citrate (K-citrate) has been prescribed and well accepted by urologists for treating urinary stone disease (urolithiasis), the clinical role of Na-citrate has not been well established. We investigated the effects of Na-citrate and cola on the treatment of urolithiasis with an emerging translational model – Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila medium containing 0.5% ethylene glycol (EG) was used as a lithogenic agent for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. Cola (25%) and Na-citrate (2% and 4%) were added to the fly medium for urolithiasis treatment. Medium containing K-citrate (2% and 4%) was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment, the Malpighian tubules were dissected, removed, and processed for polarized light microscopy examination; fly lifespan was also monitored in different groups. Cola failed to reduce CaOx crystal formation, whereas Na-citrate and the positive control K-citrate significantly reduced EG-induced CaOx crystal formation in Drosophila. Administration of either Na-citrate or cola did not inhibit Drosophila lifespan. Consumption of cola exerts no detectable change in the lithogenic agent associated with CaOx stone formation in the Drosophila model. By contrast, Na-citrate had an inhibitory effect on EG-induced CaOx crystal formation, albeit a lower inhibitory rate upon comparison with K-citrate.

cola drosophila sodium citrate calcium oxalate urolithiasis

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