Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 15-19
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Extraction and Separation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Ionic Liquid and Salt

Xifeng Zhang1, Fenqin Zhang1, Guanghong Luo2, , Shenghui Yang2 and Danxia Wang2

1The College of Agriculture and Biotechnology (CAB), Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China

2Kaiyuan Bio-tech Development Center, Hexi University, Zhangye, P.R. China

Pub. Date: December 30, 2014

Cite this paper:
Xifeng Zhang, Fenqin Zhang, Guanghong Luo, Shenghui Yang and Danxia Wang. Extraction and Separation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Ionic Liquid and Salt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):15-19. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-3

Abstract

To explore a new and simple rapid extraction and purification technique for phycocyanin, an ionic liquids(ILs)-based aqueous two-phase system(ATPS) was developed for the purification of phycocyanin from Spirulina extracts. Effects of various process parameters such as the concentrations of [Bmim]Cl, the concentrations of KH2PO4, the concentrations of crude phycocyanin, the system pH and the temperature on partitioning of phycocyanin were evaluated. The obtained data indicated that phycocyanin was preferentially partitioned into the ILs-rich phase and the ATPS composed of 23% (w/w) [Bmim]Cland 29% (w/w) KH2PO4 at 30°C and pH 7.0 showed good selectivity on phycocyanin. Under the optimum conditions, phycocyanin with a purity of 3.98 and yield of about 90.23 % was obtained. Therefore, ILs-based ATPS was an effective method for partitioning and recovery of phycocyanin from Spirulina extracts.

Keywords:
Ionic liquid Aqueous two-phase system phycocyanin Purification

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  G.G. Choi, M.S. Bae, C.Y. Ahn, H.M. Oh, Induction of axenic culture of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis based on antibiotic sensitivity of contaminating bacteria, Biotechnol. Lett. 30 (2008) 87-92.
 
[2]  M.G. Sajilata, R.S. Singhal, M.Y. Kamat, Fractionation of lipids and purification of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) from Spirulina platensis, Food Chem. 109 (2008) 580-586.
 
[3]  T. Gireesh, A. Jayadeep, K.N. Rajasekharan, V.P. Menon, M. Vairamany, G. Tang, P.P. Nair, P.R. Sudhakaran, Production of deuterated beta-carotene by metabolic labelling of Spirulina platensis, Biotechnol. Lett. 23 (2001) 447-449.
 
[4]  H.B. Chen, J.Y. Wu, C.F. Wang, C.C. Fu, C.J. Shieh, C.I. Chen, C.Y. Wang, Y.C. Liu, Modeling on chlorophyll a and phycocyanin production by Spirulina platensis under various light-emitting diodes, Biochem. Eng. J. 53 (2010) 52-56.
 
[5]  T.Silveira, J.F.M.Burkert, J.A.V.Costa, C.A.V.Burkert, S.J.Kalil, Opti mization of phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis using factorial design, Bioresour. Technol. 98 (2007) 1629-1634.
 
[6]  M.C.Santiago-Santos,T.Ponce-Noyola,R.Olvera-Ramirez, J.Ortega-Lopez, R.O. Canizares-Villanueva, Extraction and purification of phycocyanin from Calothrix sp, Process Biochem. 39 (2004) 2047-2052.
 
[7]  G. Patil, K. Raghavarao, Aqueous two phase extraction for purification of C-phycocyanin, Biochem. Eng. J. 34 (2007) 156-164.
 
[8]  V.B. Bhat, K.M. Madyastha, C-Phycocyanin: a potent peroxyl radical scavenger in vivo and in vitro, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275 (2000) 20-25.
 
[9]  M.C. Reddy, J. Subliashini, S.V.K. Mahipal, V.B. Bhat, P.S. Reddy, G. Kiranmai, K.M. Madyastha, P. Reddanna, C-Phycocyanin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (2003) 385-392.
 
[10]  M.G. de Morais, J.A.V. Costa, Carbon dioxide fixation by Chlorella kessleri, C-vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina sp cultivated in flasks and vertical tubular photobioreactors, Biotechnol. Lett. 29 (2007) 1349-1352.
 
[11]  C.Y. Wang, C.C. Fu, Y.C. Liu, Effects of using light-emitting diodes on the cultivation of Spirulina platensis, Biochem. Eng. J. 37 (2007) 21-25.
 
[12]  S.G. Yan, L.P. Zhu, H.N. Su, X.Y. Zhang, X.L. Chen, B.C. Zhou, Y.Z. Zhang, Single-step chromatography for simultaneous purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with high purity and recovery from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, J. Appl. Phycol. 23 (2011) 1-6.
 
[13]  Boussiba, S., & Richmond,A.E. (1979). Isolation and characterization of phycocyanins from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Archives of Microbiology, 120, 155-159.
 
[14]  Ranjitha, K., & Kaushik, B. D. (2005). Purification of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc muscorum. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 64, 372-375.
 
[15]  Eriksen, N. T. (2008).Production of phycocyanin-a pigment with applications in biology, biotechnology, foods and medicine. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80, 1-14.
 
[16]  Yan, S., Zhu, L., Su, H., Zhang, X., Chen, X., Zhou, B., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Single-step chromatography for simultaneous purification of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin with high purity and recovery from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23, 1-6.
 
[17]  Tchernov, A. A., Minkova, K. M., Houbavenska, N. B., & Kovacheva, N. G. (1999). Purification of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc sp. by aminohexyl-sepharose chromatography. Journal of Biotechnology, 69, 69-73.
 
[18]  Aguilar, O., & Rito-Palomares, M. (2010). Aqueous two‐phase systems strategies for the recovery and characterization of biological products from plants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (9), 1385-1392.
 
[19]  S. Dreyer, P. Salim, U. Kragl, Driving forces of protein partitioning in an ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system, Biochem. Eng. J. 46 (2009) 176-185.
 
[20]  J.A.P. Coutinho, C.M.S.S. Neves, S.P.M. Ventura, M.G. Freire, I.M. Marrucho, Evaluation of cation influence on the formation and extraction capability of ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems, J. Phys. Chem. B 113 (2009) 5194-5199.
 
[21]  Y.C. Pei, J.J. Wang, K. Wu, X.P. Xuan, X.J. Lu, Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase extraction of selected proteins, Sep. Purif. Technol. 64 (2009) 288-295.
 
[22]  H.B. Chen, J.Y. Wu, C.F. Wang, C.C. Fu, C.J. Shieh, C.I. Chen, C.Y. Wang, Y.C. Liu, Modeling on chlorophyll a and phycocyanin production by Spirulina platensis under various light-emitting diodes, Biochem. Eng. J. 53 (2010) 52-56.
 
[23]  Boussiba S,Richmond A E(1979)Isolation and purification of phycocyanins from the blue green algae Spirulina platensis. Arch Microbiol 120: 155-159.
 
[24]  Deutscher M (1990) Guide to protein purification, vol 182. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, New York.
 
[25]  novak U, Pohar a, Plazl l, Znidarsic-Plazl P (2012) Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase extraction within a microchannel system. Sep Purif Technol 97: 172-178.
 
[26]  Ma CH, liu TT, Yang l, Zu Yg, Chen XQ, Zhang l, Zhang Y,Chao CJ (2011) Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits. J Chromatogr a 1218: 8573-8580.
 
[27]  M.G. Freire, A.F.M. Cláudio, J.M.M. Araújo, J.A.P. Coutinbo, I.M. Marrucho, J.N.C.Lopes, L.P.N. Rebelo, Aqueous biphasic systems: a boost brought about byusing ionic liquids, Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 4966-4995.
 
[28]  F.Z. Deng, D.F. Guo, Extraction separation of bovine serum albumin in ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system, Chin. J. Anal. Chem. 34 (2006) 1451-1453.