Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015, 3(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Sensory Characterization of Commercial Lager Beers and Their Correlations with Iso-α-Acid Concentrations

Carlos A. Blanco1, , Dieudonné Nimubona1, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández1 and Inmaculada Álvarez2

1Dpto. Ingeniería Agrícola y Forestal (Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos) Universidad de Valladolid. E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias. Avda. Madrid 44. 34004 Palencia, Spain

2Dpto. Tecnología de Alimentos. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, 46023 Valencia, Spain

Pub. Date: December 30, 2014

Cite this paper:
Carlos A. Blanco, Dieudonné Nimubona, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández and Inmaculada Álvarez. Sensory Characterization of Commercial Lager Beers and Their Correlations with Iso-α-Acid Concentrations. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2015; 3(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-3-1-1

Abstract

A total of 40 commercial lager beers (6 dark, 28 pale and 6 alcohol free) were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated by a descriptive sensorial panel. Discriminant Analysis was applied to 15 sensory descriptors to obtain a classification by types of beer. Cluster Analysis identified 4 clusters grouping the 15 sensory descriptors. The Correlation Matrix confirmed a correlation between them and the subsequent Principal Component Analysis. A stepwise discriminant analysis was used to eliminate the less significant descriptors, leading to 100% of the samples being correctly classified with a reduced number of variables (colour intensity, smell of caramel, smell of toasted, persistence and viscosity). The analysis of the correlations between iso-α-acid concentrations and sensory descriptors shows a good relationship with bitter taste. Thus, HPLC data can be used for predicting lager beer bitterness through the mathematical correlation developed in this paper.

Keywords:
lagerbeer iso-α-acids sensory descriptors bitterness correlation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Bellido-Milla D, Moreno-Perez J, Hernández-Artiga MP. Differentiation and classification of beers with flame atomic spectrometry and molecular absorption spectrometry and sample preparation assisted by microwaves. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 55 (7), 855-864, 2000.
 
[2]  Da Silva GA, Augusto F, Poppi RJ. Exploratory analysis of the volatile profile of beers by HS-SPME-GC. Food Chemistry, 111: 1057-1063, 2008.
 
[3]  Da Silva GA, Maretto DA, Bolini HMA, Teófilo RF, Augusto F, Poppi RJ. Correlation of quantitative sensorial descriptors and chromatographic signals of beer using multivariate calibration strategies. Food Chemistry, 134 (3): 1673-1681, 2012.
 
[4]  Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M, Mohtasebi SS, Rodriguez-Mendez ML, Lozano J, Razavi SH, Ahmadi H,ApetreiC. Classification of non-alcoholic beer based on aftertaste sensory evaluation by chemometric tools. Expert Systems with Applications, 39: 4315-4327, 2012.
 
[5]  Meilgaard MC.Prediction of flavour differences between beers from their chemical composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 30 (6): 1009-1017, 1982.
 
[6]  Saison D, De Schutter DP, Uyttenhove B, Delvaux F, Delvaux FR. Contribution of staling compounds to the aged flavour of lager beer by studying their flavour thresholds. Food Chemistry, 114 (4): 1206-1215, 2009.
 
[7]  Sterckx FL, Missiaen J, Saison D, Freddy R, Delvaux FR (2011) Contribution of monophenols to beer flavour based on flavour thresholds, interactions and recombination experiments Food Chemistry 126: 1679-1685.
 
[8]  Inui T, Tsuchiya F, Ishimaru M, Oka K, Komura H. .Different Beers with Different Hops.Relevant Compounds for Their Aroma Characteristics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61: 4758-4764, 2013.
 
[9]  Sikorska E, Góreck T, Khmelinskii IV, Sikorski M, Keukeleir D. Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Characterization and Differentiation of Beers. Journal of Institute of Brewing, 110 (4): 267-275, 2004.
 
[10]  Hernández-Caraballo E, Avila-Gómez R, Capote T, Rivas F, Pérez A. Classification of Venezuelan spirituous beverages by means of discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks based on their Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations. , 60 (6): 1259-1267, 2003.
 
[11]  González-Arjona D, López-Pérez G, González-Gallero V,González A. Supervised pattern recognition procedures for discrimination of whiskeys from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry congener analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54 (6):1982-1589, 2006.
 
[12]  Cajka T, Riddellova K, Tomaniova M, HajslovaJ. Recognition of beer brand based on multivariate analysis of volatile fingerprint.Journal of Chromatography A, 1217: 4195-4203, 2010.
 
[13]  López-Vázquez C, Bollaín MC, Moser S,Orriols I. Characterization and Differentiation of Monovarietal Grape Pomace Distillate from Native Varieties of Galicia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58 (17): 9657-9665, 2010.
 
[14]  Cliff M, Stanich K, Edwards J, Saucier C. Adding grape seed extract to wine affects astringency and other sensory attribute. Journal of Food Quality, 35 (4): 263-271, 2012.
 
[15]  Alvarez I, Aleixandre JL, García MJ, Casp A, ZúnicaL .Geographical differentiation of white wines from three subzones of the designation of origin Valencia. European Food Research and Technology, 21: 173-179, 2003.
 
[16]  Alcazar A, Jurado JM, Palacios A, De Pablos F, Martin MJ. Recognition of the Geographical Origin of Beer Based on Support Vector Machines Applied to Chemical Descriptors. Food Control, 23: 258-262, 2012.
 
[17]  Meilgaard MC.Prediction of flavour differences between beers from their chemical composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 30 (6): 1009-1017, 1982.
 
[18]  Wilson CI, Threapleton L. Proceedings of the 29th European Brewery Convention Congress, Dublin, Ireland, May 17-22, 2003.
 
[19]  Tomaniova M, Riddellova K, Hajslova J, Cajka T.Recognition of beer brand based on multivariate analysis of volatile finger print. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217: 4195-4203, 2010.
 
[20]  Vera L, Aceña L, Guasch J, Boqué R, Mestres M,Busto O. Discrimination and sensory description of beers through data fusion. Talanta, 15 (87): 136-42, 2011.
 
[21]  Donadini G, Fumi MD, De Faveri DM. Sensory Characteristics of Romanian, Polish, Albanian and Former Yugoslavian Beers. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 117 (4): 507-515, 2011.
 
[22]  Liu C, Dong J, Wang J, Yin X, Li Q. A comprehensive sensory evaluation of beers from the Chinese market. Journal of Institute of Brewing, 118: 325-333, 2012.
 
[23]  Duarte IF, Barros A, Almeida C, Spraul M, Gil AM. Multivariate Analysis of NMR and FTIR Data as a Potential Tool for the Quality Control of Beer. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(5): 1031-1038, 2004.
 
[24]  Blanco CA, Rojas A, Caballero PA, Ronda F, Gomez M, Caballero I. A better control of beer properties by predicting acidity of hop iso-α-acids. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17: 373-377, 2006.
 
[25]  Guido L, Curto A, Boivin P, Benismail N, Gonçalves C, Barros A. Appelation of malt quality parameters and beer flavor stability:  Multivariate Analysis. Journal of Agricultural of Food Chemistry, 55 (3): 728-733, 2007.
 
[26]  Dreve S, Voica C, Dragan F,Georgiu M. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing. Processes in Isotopes and Molecules AIP Conference Proceedings, 1565: 290-293, 2013.
 
[27]  Blanco CA, Nimubona D, Caballero I. Prediction of the ageing of commercial lager beer during storage based on the degradation of iso-α-acids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94: 1988-1993, 2014.
 
[28]  Oñate-Jaén A, Bellido-milla D, Hernández-Artiga MP (2006) Spectrophotometric methods to differentiate beers and evaluate beer ageing Food Chemistry 97: 361-369.
 
[29]  Techakriengkrai I, Paterson A, Taidi B, Piggott JR (2004) Relationships of sensory bitterness in lager beers to iso-α-acid contents Journal of Institute of Brewing 110: 51-56.
 
[30]  Kappler S, SchönbergerCh, Krottenthaler M, Becker T. Isohumulones-a Review Brewing Science, 63: 105-111, 2010.
 
[31]  Caballero I, Blanco CA, Porras M. Iso-α-acids, Bitterness and Loss of Beer Quality during Storage. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 26: 21-30, 2012.
 
[32]  Nimubona D, Blanco CA, Caballero I, Rojas A, Andres-Iglesias C. An approximate shelf life prediction of elaborated lager beer in terms of degradation of its iso-α-acids.Journal of Food Engineering, 116: 138-143, 2013.
 
[33]  Scinska A, Koros E, Habrat B, Kukwa A, Kostowski W, Bienkowski P. Bitter and sweet components of ethanol taste in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60: 199-206, 2000.
 
[34]  Verzele M, Jansen HE, Ferdinandus A. Organoleptic trials with hop bitter substances. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 76: 25-28, 1970.
 
[35]  King BM, Moreau N.A comparison of bitter perception in high-alcohol, low-alcohol and alcohol-free beer. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 102: 419-425, 1996.
 
[36]  Vanhoenacker G, De Keukeleire D, Sandra P. Analysis of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in beer by direct injection and liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1035: 53-61, 2004.
 
[37]  Vanderhaegen B, Neven H, Verachtert H, Derdelinckx G.The chemistry of beer aging.A critical review. Food Chemistry, 95: 357-381, 2006.
 
[38]  Jaskula B, Goiris K, Aerts G, De Cooman L. Hop α-acids isomerisation and utilisation: an experimental review, Cerevisia, 35 (3): 57-70, 2010.
 
[39]  Gutiérrez JM, Haddi Z, Amari A, Bouchikhi B, Mimendia A, Ceto X, Del Valle M. Hybrid electronic tongue based on multisensor data fusion for discrimination of beers. Sensors and Actuators B, 177: 989-996, 2013.
 
[40]  Analytica EBC 5th Edition. Brauerei und Getränke Rundschau, CH-8047, Zürich, Switzerland, 1997.
 
[41]  Arrieta AA, Rodriguez-Mendez ML, de Saja JA, Blanco CA, Nimubona D. Prediction of bitterness and alcoholic strength in beer using an electronic tongue. Food Chemistry, 123: 642-646, 2010.
 
[42]  Biendl M, Virant M, Varjú P. Determination of iso-α-acids, alpha-and beta-Acids in Isomerised Hop Pellets by HPLC. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 110 (3): 242-243, 2004.
 
[43]  Van Opstaele F, De Rouck G, De Clippeleer J, AertsG,DeCoomanL. Analytical and sensory assessment of hoppy aroma and bitterness of conventionally hopped and advanced hopped Pilsner beers. Cerevisia, 36: 47-59, 2011.
 
[44]  ISO 8586-1. Sensory analysis. General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors. Part 1: Selected assessors. International Organization for Standardization, 2012.
 
[45]  Válková V, Saláková A, Buchtová H, Tremlová B. Chemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of cooked pork ham. Meat Science, 77: 608-615, 2007.
 
[46]  Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M, Mohtasebi SS, Siadat M, Ahmadi H, Razavi SH, Dicko A .Aging fingerprint characterization of beer using electronic nose. Sensors and Actuators B, 159: 51-59, 2011.
 
[47]  King BM, Moreau N.A comparison of bitter perception in high-alcohol, low-alcohol and alcohol-free beer. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 102: 419-425, 1996.
 
[48]  Obara K, Mizutani M, Hitomi Y, Yajima H, Kondo K. Isohumulones, the bitter component of beer, improve hyperglycemia and decrease body fat in Japanese subjects. Clinical Nutrition, 28 (3): 278-284, 2009.
 
[49]  Denise E, Baxter ED, Hughes PS. Flavour determinants of beer quality in Beer: quality, safety and nutritional aspect. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF/UK, 40, 2001.