Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 1015-1020
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-24
Open AccessArticle

Profile of Bacteria and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Caecal Digesta in Malnourished Rat Fed Goat Milk Yoghurt

Nurliyani1, , BJ. Istiti Kandarina2, Sari Kusuma3, Yunita Dewi Trisnasari3 and Feny Prabawati1

1Department of Animal Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3Department of Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Pub. Date: December 03, 2014

Cite this paper:
Nurliyani, BJ. Istiti Kandarina, Sari Kusuma, Yunita Dewi Trisnasari and Feny Prabawati. Profile of Bacteria and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Caecal Digesta in Malnourished Rat Fed Goat Milk Yoghurt. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):1015-1020. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-24


The intestinal microbiota is an important determinant for general health of the human body, and disturbance of the proper balance of microbiota is involved in several pathologies. The profile of gastrointestinal microbiota can be influenced by nutritional factors and or health status of individuals. This study aimed to determine the effect of goat milk yogurt on the profile of caecal bacteria and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in malnourished rats. Yoghurt was prepared by using of pasteurized goat milk with adding the Lacto-B powder containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum. Male malnourished Wistar rats 3 weeks old were created using standard feed restriction up to 50% of normal rats for 21 d. After 21 d, the rats continued to restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. The rats were killed and analyzed the profile of caecal bacteria and SCFA. There were no significantly differences in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria in both of caecal digesta of malnourished or normal rats fed yoghurt and control rats. However, the amount of E. coli was higher in malnourished rats than the normal rats. The acetic acid of caecal digesta was lower in the rats fed goat milk yoghurt than the control rats, whereas the butyric acid was higher in the caecal digesta of normal rats compared to the malnourished rats. The pH and moisture of caecal digesta in rats fed yoghurt were not significantly different from the control. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplemented up to 2.0 ml/100 g body weight for 7 d had no effect on profile of caecal bacteria and physical properties and could not increase of caecal SCFA in malnourished and normal rats. Malnourished condition could increase the number of E. coli, decrease the butyric acid and weight of caecal.

Goat milk yoghurt Caecal bacteria SCFA Malnourished rat

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Lopetuso, L.R., Scaldaferri, F., Petito, V. and Gasbarrini, A.“Commensal Clostridia: leading players in the maintenance of gut homeostasis”. Gut Pathogens 5 (23), 1-8, 2013.
[2]  Sowash, J.R. “Rat Dissection”, 1-9, May 2009. [Accessed October, 2014].
[3]  Sears, C.L. “A dynamic partnership: Celebratingour gut flora”. Anaerobe 11, 247-251, 2005.
[4]  Ivanov, I.I., Frutos, R.D.L., Manel, N., Yoshinaga, K., Rifkin, D.B., Sartor, R.B., Finlay, B.B. and Littman, D.R. “Specific microbiota direct the differentiation of Th17 cells in the mucosa of the small intestine”. Cell Host Microbe. 4 (4), 337-349, October 2008.
[5]  Lin, X.B., Farhangfar, A., Valcheva, R., Sawyer, M.B., Dieleman, L., Schieber, A., Ganzle, M.G. and Baracos, V. “The role of intestinal microbiota in development of irinotecan toxicity and in toxicity reduction through dietary fibres in rats”. PLoS ONE 9 (1), e83644, 1-11, 2014.
[6]  Manson, J.M., Rauch, M. and Gilmore, M.S. “Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System” Edited by Huffnagle, G.B. and Noverr, M.C. Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media, 2008. [Accessed October, 2014].
[7]  Rossi, M., Amaretti, A. and Raimondi, S. “Folate production by probiotic bacteria”. Nutrients 3, 118-134, 2011.
[8]  Vecchio A.L and Cohen, M.B. “Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection: benefits and barriers”. See comment in PubMed Commons belowCurr Opin Gastroenterol., 30 (1), 47-53, January 2014.
[9]  Fukuda, S., Toh, H., Hase, K., Oshima, K., Nakanishi, Y., Yoshimura, K., Tobe, T., Clarke, J.M., Topping, D.L., Suzuki, T., Taylor, T.D., Itoh, K., Kikuchi, J., Morita, H., Hattori, M. and Ohno, H. “Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature 469, 543-547, January, 2011.
[10]  Louis, P., Scott, K.P., Duncan, S.H. and Flint, H.J. “Understanding the effects of diet on bacterial metabolism in the large intestine”. J Appl Microbiol, 102 (5), 1197-1208, May 2007.
[11]  Kuda, T., Yano, T., Matsuda, N. and Nishizawa, M. “ Food Chemistry 91 Inhibitory effects of laminaran and low molecular alginate against the putrefactive compounds produced by intestinal microflora in vitro and in rats”. Food Chem. 91, 745-749, 2005.
[12]  Dock, D.B., Agular-Nascimento, J. E., and Latorraca, M.Q. “Probiotics enhance the recovery of gut atrophy in experimental malnutrition”. Biocell 28, 143-150, 2004.
[13]  Rodríguez, L., Cervantes, E. and Ortiz, R. “Malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children: A public health problem” J.Environ. Res.Public Health, 8, 1174-1205, 2011.
[14]  Cortés-Barberena, E., González-Márquez, H., Gómez-Olivares, J.L. and Ortiz-Muñiz, R. “Effects of moderate and severe malnutrition in rats on splenic T lymphocyte subsets and activation assessed by flow cytometry”. Clin Exp Immunol. 152, 585-592, 2008.
[15]  Johansson, S., “Goat Milk-Nutrition and health aspects”, 1-24, 2011. [Accessed August, 2014].
[16]  Asahara, T., Shimizu, K., Nomoto, K., Watanuki, M. and Tanaka, R. “Antibacterial effect of fermented milk containing Bifidodobacterium bre×e, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus against indigenous Escherichia coli infection in mice” Microb Ecol Health Dis., 13, 16-24, 2001.
[17]  Dash, S.K., “ Selection criteria for probiotics”, in XXXVII Dairy Industry Conference, Kala Academy, Panjim, Goa, 1-4, Feb 7-9, 2009.
[18]  Wu, F.Y., Tsao, P.H., Wang, D.C., Lin, S., Wu, J. and Cheng, Y.K., “Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk”. J Dairy Sci., 89, 1951-1955, 2006.
[19]  Bode, L. Recent advances on structure, metabolism, and function of human milk oligosaccharides”. J Nutr. 136, 2127-2130, 2006.
[20]  Lara-Villoslada, F., Debras, E., Nieto, A., Concha, A., Ga´lvez, J., Lo´pez-Huertas, E., Boza, J., Obled, C. and Xaus, J. “Oligosaccharides isolated from goat milk reduce intestinal inflammation in a rat model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis”, Clin Nutr. 25, 477-488, 2006.
[21]  Dave, R.I. and Shah, N.P., “Ingredient supplementation effects on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt” J Dairy Sci., 81 (11), 2804-2816, 1998.
[22]  Reeves, P. G., Neilsen, F.H. and Fahey, G.C., JR., “AIN-93 Purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the Formulation of the AIN-76A Rodent Diet”. J. Nutr. 123, 1939-1951, 1993.
[23]  Rosso, P., Keyou, G., Bassi, J.A. and Slusser, W.M. “Effect of malnutrition during pregnancy on the development of the mammary glands of rats”. J. Nutr. 111, 1937-1941, 1981.
[24]  WHO, “Food and nutrition policy for schools: A tool for the development of school nutrition programmes in the European Region”. Programme for Nutrition and Food Security. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Copenhagen, 2006.
[25]  Morishita, Y. “Effect of food restriction on caecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in rats. Microb Ecol Health Dis., 8, 35-39, 1995.
[26]  Mundt, J.O., Graham, W. F. and McCarty, I. E., “Spherical lactic acid-producing bacteria of southern-grown raw and processed vegetables”, Appl Microbiol., 15: 1303-1308, 1967.
[27]  Hwanhlem, N., Buradaleng, S., Wattanachant, S., Benjakul, S., Tanic, A. and Maneera, S., “Isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria from Thai traditional fermented fish (Plasom) and production of Plasom from selected strains”. Food Cont., 22 (3-4), 401-407, March-April 2011.
[28]  Endo, A., Futagawa-Endo, Y., and Dicks, L.M., “Isolation and characterization of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria from fructose-rich niches”. Syst Appl Microbiol., 32: 593-600, 2009.
[29]  Gomes, A.M.P., Malcata, F.X. and Klaver, F.A.M. “Growth enhancement of Bifidobacterium lactis Bo and Lactobacillus acidophilus Ki by milk hydrolyzates”, J Dairy Sci., 81 (11), 2817-2825, 1998.
[30]  AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis”. 14th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC., 1990.
[31]  Swanson, K.S., Grieshop, C.M., Flickinger, E.A., Bauer, L.L., Wolf, B.W, Chow J, Garleb KA, Williams JA, Fahey GC Jr. Fructooligosaccharides and Lactobacillus acidophilus modify bowel function and protein catabolites excreted by healthy humans. J Nutr., 132 (10), 3042-3050, Oct., 2002.
[32]  Yang, S-C., Chen, J-Y., Shang, H-F., Cheng, T-Y., Tsou, S.C. and Chen, J-R. “Effect of synbiotics on intestinal microflora and digestive enzyme activities in rats” World J Gastroenterol, 11 (47), 7413-7417, 2005.
[33]  Hussein, L., Gouda, M., Fouad, M., Labib, E., Bassyouni, R. and Mohammad, M. “Dietary intervention with yoghurt, ynbiotic yogurt or traditional fermented sobya: Bio-Potency among male adolescents using five bio-markers of relevance to colonic metabolic activities”. Food. Nutr. Sci., 5 (12), 1131-1144, 2014.
[34]  Djouzi, Z., Andrieux, C., Degivry, M-C., Bouley, C. and Szylit, O., “The association of yogurt starters with Lactobacillus casei DN 114.001 in fermented milk alters the composition and metabolism of intestinal microflora in germ-free rats and in human flora-associated rats”, J. Nutr., 127, 2260-2266, 1997.
[35]  Nilsson, U., Nyman, M., Ahrné, S., Eilbhis, Sullivan, O., and Fitzgerald, G., “Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC500 modify carboxylic acid formation in the hindgut of rats given pectin, inulin, and lactito”, J. Nutr., 136 (8), 2175-2180, 2006.
[36]  Jakobsdottir, G., Jädert, C., Holm, L. and Nyman, M.E, “Propionic and butyric acids, formed in the caecum of rats fed highly fermentable dietary fibre, are reflected in portal and aortic serum”, Br J Nutr., 110 (9), 1565-1572, March 2013.
[37]  Canani,. R.B., Di Costanzo, M., Leone, L., Pedata, M., Meli, R., Calignano, A. “Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases”. World J Gastroenterol. 17 (12), 1519-1528, 2011.
[38]  Zimmerman, M. A., Singh, N., Martin, P. M., Thangaraju, M., Ganapathy, V., Waller, J. L., Shi, H., Robertson, K. D., Munn, D. H. and Liu, K. "Butyrate suppresses colonic inflammation through HDAC1-dependent Fas upregulation and Fas-mediated apoptosis of T cells". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol., 302 (12), G1405-1415, Jun 2012.
[39]  Dumas, M-E. 2011. “The Microbial-Mammalian Metabolic Axis: Beyond Simple Metabolism”. Cell Metab., 13, 489-490, May, 2011.
[40]  Smith, J.G., Yokoyama, W.H. and German,. J.B., “Butyric acid from the diet: actions at the level of gene expression”. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr., 38: 259-297, 1998.
[41]  Vanhoutvin, S.A., Troost, F.J., Hamer, H.M., Lindsey, P.J., Koek, G.H., Jonkers, D.M., Kodde, A., Venema, K. and Brummer, R.J., "Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa". In Bereswill, Stefan. PLoS ONE, 4 (8): e6759, 2009.
[42]  Huda-Faujan, N., Abdulamir, A.S., Fatimah, A.B., Anas, O.M., Shuhaimi, M., Yazid, A.M. and Loong, Y.Y. “The impact of the level of the intestinal short chain fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease patients versus healthy subjects”, Open Biochem J., 4, 53-58, 2010.
[43]  Ogata, T., Kingaku M., Yaeshima, T., Teraguchi, S., Fukuwatari, Y., Ishibashi, N., Hayasawa, H., Fujisawa, T. and Iino, H., “Effect of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 yogurt administration on the intestinal environment of healthy adults”, Microb Ecol Health Dis., 11, 41-46, 1999.
[44]  Mumtaz, S., Salim-ur-Rehman, Huma, N., and Jamil, A., “Effect of xylooligosaccharide enriched yogurt on serum profile in Albino rats” Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (11), 1756-1759, 2009.
[45]  Siigur, U., Norins, K.E., Allgood, G., Schlagheck, T., Midtvedts, T. “Concentrations and correlations of faecal short-chain fatty fcids and faecal water content in man”. Microb Ecol Health Dis., 7: 287-294, 1994.
[46]  Matsumoto, K., Takada, T., Shimizu, K., Moriyama, K., Kawakami, K., Hirano, K., Kajimoto, O., Nomoto, K., “Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools”, J Biosci Bioeng., 110 (5), 547-552, N0v, 2010.
[47]  Rowland, I. R, Rumney, C.J., Coutts, J.T. and Lievense, L.C. “Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats” Carcinogenesis, 19 (2), 281-285, 1998.
[48]  Rowland,I.R. and Tanaka, R., “ The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human faecal microflora”. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 74, 667-674, 1993.