Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 906-913
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-8
Open AccessArticle

Comparison between Experimentally Determined Total, Saturated and Trans Fat Levels and Levels Reported on the Labels of Cookies and Bread sold in Brazil

Vanessa Martins Hissanaga-Himelstein1, 2, Mateus Santaella Vivaz Oliveira2, Bruna Maria Silveira2, David Alejandro González-Chica3, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença2, 3, and Jane Mara Block1, 2

1Food Science Post Graduate Programa, UFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina), Florianópolis-SC, Brazil

2NUPPRE (Nutrition in Foodservice Research Nucleus), UFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina), Florianópolis-SC, Brazil

3Nutrition Post Graduate Programa, UFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina), Florianópolis-SC, Brazil

Pub. Date: November 10, 2014

Cite this paper:
Vanessa Martins Hissanaga-Himelstein, Mateus Santaella Vivaz Oliveira, Bruna Maria Silveira, David Alejandro González-Chica, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença and Jane Mara Block. Comparison between Experimentally Determined Total, Saturated and Trans Fat Levels and Levels Reported on the Labels of Cookies and Bread sold in Brazil. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):906-913. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-8

Abstract

In Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) made the labeling of trans fats in foods mandatory from July 2006. The claim “trans fat free” can be used only for foods with trans fat content lower than 0.2g and saturated fat content lower than 2g per serving. This study determined fatty acid profile by gas chromatography and total fat content of nine cookie types and three bread types and the results obtained were compared with the values reported on the labels of these products. According to the results, 92% of the products contained trans fat, although only 33% reported this on their labels. There was no significant difference with the experimentally determined levels of the products that reported the presence of trans fat. In 67% of the products that reported an absence of trans fat on their labels, less than 0.2g of trans fat per serving was experimentally detected. The results revealed that the food product manufacturers studied are labeling trans fat content properly according to the law as they report products that have less than 0.2g trans fat as “trans fat free”. However, it bears noting that claiming that a product is free of trans fat on the label does not always guarantee that it is not present in the product and that the maximum suggested daily intake of 2g will not be exceeded relatively easily considering that consumers do not always consume only the amount identified as the serving size on the label. Also, the paper enabled a discussion about the lack of standardization in the description of fat used as ingredient in foods.

Keywords:
gas chromatography hydrogenated vegetable oils nutrition labeling palm vegetable oil trans fatty acids

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Remig, V., Franklin, B., Margolis, S., Kostas, G., Nece, T. and Street, J.C. “Trans Fats in America: A Review of Their Use, Consumption, Health Implications, and Regulation”. J Am Diet Assoc. 110 (4). 585-592. 2010.
 
[2]  Eckel, R.H., Borra, S., Lichtenstein, A.H. and Yin-Piazza, S.Y. “Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet”. Circulation. 115. 2231-2246. 2007.
 
[3]  Wassel, P. and Young, N.W.G. “Food applications of trans fatty acid substitutes”. Int J Food Sci Tech. 42(5). 503-517. 2007.
 
[4]  Fu, H., Yang, L., Yuan, H., Rao, P. and Lo, Y.M. “Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China”. J Food Sci. 73(8). S383-91. 2008.
 
[5]  Scheeder, M.R.L. “About the trans-(hi)story: how did trans fatty acids enter the human food chain”. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 18(2). 133-135. 2007.
 
[6]  Mozaffarian, D., Aro, A. and Willet, W.C. “Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence”. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63 (2). S5-S21. 2009.
 
[7]  Dorfman, S.E., Laurent, D., Gounarides, J.S., Li, X., Mullarkey, T.L., Rocheford, E.C., Sari-Sarraf, F., Hirsch, E.A., Hughes, T.E. and Commerford, S.R. “Metabolic Implications of Dietary Trans-fatty Acids”. Obesity. 56(1). 12-21. 2009.
 
[8]  Karbowska, J. and Kochan, Z. Trans-fatty acids-effects on coronary heart disease”. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 31(181). 56-59. 2011.
 
[9]  Brouwer, I.A., Wanders, A.J. and Katan, M.B. “Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?” Eur J Clin Nutr. 67(5). 541-547. 2013.
 
[10]  Kiage, J.K., Merrill, P.D., Robinson, C.J., Cao, Y., Malik, T.A., Hundley, B.C., Lao, P., Judd, S.E., Cushman, M., Howard, V.J. and Kabagambe, E.K. “Intake of trans fat and all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort”. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(5). 1121-1128. 2013.
 
[11]  Chajès, V., Thiébaut, A.C., Rotival, M., Gauthier, E., Maillard, V., Boutron-Ruault, M-C., Joulin, V., Lenoir, G.M. and Cavel-Chapelon, F. “Association between sérum trans-monounsaturated fatty acids breast cancer risk in the E3N study”. Am J Epidemiol. 167(11). 1312-1320. 2008.
 
[12]  Vinikoor, L.C., Millikan, R.C., Satia, J.A., Schroeder, J.C., Martin, C.F., Ibrahim, J.G. and Sandler, R.S. “Trans-Fatty acid consumption and its association with distal colorectal cancer in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study II”. Cancer Causes Control. 21(1), 171-80. 2010.
 
[13]  Laake, I., Carlsen, M.H., Pedersen, J.I., Weiderpass, E., Selmer, R., Kirkhus, B., Thune, I. and Veierød, M.B. “Intake of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable and fish oils and ruminant fat in relation to cancer risk”. Int J Cancer. 132(6). 1389-1403. 2013.
 
[14]  Mensink, R.P. and Katan, M.B. “Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects”. New Engl J Med. 323. 439-445. 1990.
 
[15]  [FDA]. Food and Drug Administration FOOD FACTS. Talking About Trans Fat What You Need to Know, JMH Education”, New York, 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm079609.htm (Accessed 18 July 2012).
 
[16]  Friesen, R. and Innis, S.M. “Trans fatty acids in human milk in Canada declined with the introduction of trans fat food labeling”. J Nutr. 136(10). 2558-2561. 2006.
 
[17]  Brazil, Ministry of Health. The National Agency of Health Surveillance. RDC Resolution nº 360 of December 2003. “Provides technical regulation on nutrition labeling of packaged foods”. Official journal (of) the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Executive Branch, Brasília, DF, 2003.
 
[18]  Brazil, Ministry of Health. The National Agency of Health Surveillance. RDC Resolution nº 54 of November 2012. “Provides technical regulation on complementary nutrition labeling”. Official journal (of) the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Executive Branch, Brasília, DF, 2012.
 
[19]  [ABIA]. Brazilian Association of Food Industries. “Technical cooperation agreememt between the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Association of Food Industries”, Brasília, DF, 2007.
 
[20]  Ministry of Health Brazil. “Technical Note: Actions of the Brazilian Government on trans fat”. 2009. Available at: http://nutricao.saude.gov.br/documentos/nota_imprensa_gorduras_trans.pdf (Accessed 24 September 2012).
 
[21]  Oviedo, K.M.M. “A comparative analysis of regulatory experiences for processed foodstuffs trans fats removal in Brazil, Canada, Denmark and the United States”. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Master’s Dissertation, 141 p., 2010.
 
[22]  [PAHO/WHO]. Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization. “Trans Fat Free Americas (TFFA), Conclusions and Recommendations”, Regional Office at the WHO, Washington, D.C., 2007.
 
[23]  Chiara, V.L., Sichieri, R. and Carvalho, T.S.F. “Trans fatty acids of some foods consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil”. Rev Nutr. 16(2). 227-233. 2003.
 
[24]  Gagliardi, A.C.M., Mancini Filho, J. and Santos, R.D. “Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim”. Rev Ass Med Bras. 55(1). 50-53. 2009.
 
[25]  Camp, D.V., Hooker, N.H. and Lin, C-TJ. “Changes in fat contents of US snack foods in response to mandatory trans fat labelling”. Public Health Nutr. 15(6). 1130-1137. 2012.
 
[26]  [IBGE]. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. “National Household Budget Survey 2008-2009: Household Food Acquisition per capita”, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 2010. Available at: <http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/pof/2008_2009_aquisicao/pof20082009_aquisicao.pdf >. (Accessed 1 July 2011).
 
[27]  [USDA]. United States Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. “Dietary Assessment of Major trends in US Food consumption, 1970-2005”. 2010. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/EIB33/EIB33_Reportsummary.pdf (Accessed 23 September 2010).
 
[28]  [AOAC]. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. “Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC”, 18 ed., AOAC International, Gaithersburg, 2005.
 
[29]  Folch, J., Less, M. and Stanley, S. “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues”. J Biol Chem. 226(1). 497-509. 1957.
 
[30]  Hartman, L. and Lago, B.C. “A Rapid Preparation of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters From Lipids”. Laboratory Practice. 22(6). 475-476. 1973.
 
[31]  Kodali, D.R. Trans fats – Chemistry, Occurrence, Functional Need in Foods and Potential Solutions, AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, 2005, 150p.
 
[32]  Norhayati, M., Azrina, A., Norhaizan, M.E. and Muhammad Rizal R. “Trans fatty acids content of biscuits commercially available in Malaysian Market and comparison with other countries”. Inter Food Res J. 18(3). 1097-1103. 2011.
 
[33]  Martin, C.A., Carapelli, R., Visantainer, J.V., Matsushita, M. and Souza, N.E. “Trans fatty acid content of Brazilian biscuits”. Food Chem. 93(3). 445-448. 2005.
 
[34]  Huang, Z., Wang, B., Pace, R.D. and Oh, J-H. “Trans Fatty Acid Content of Selected Foods in an African-American Community”. J Food Sci. 71(6). C322-327. 2006.
 
[35]  Meremäe, K., Roasto, M., Kuusik, S., Ots, M. and Henno, M. “Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian Market”. J Food Sci. 77(8). T163-168. 2012.
 
[36]  Norum, K.R. “Dietary Fat and Blood Lipids”. Nutr Rev. 50(4). 30-37. 1992.
 
[37]  Jakobsen, M.U., Overvad, K., Dyerberg, J., Schroll, M. and Heitmann, B.L. “Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age”. Am J Epidemiol. 160(2). 141-149. 2004.
 
[38]  Tarrani-Trani, M.T., Phillips, K.M., Lemar, L.E. and Holden, J.M. “New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content”. J Am Diet Assoc. 106. 867-880. 2006.
 
[39]  Skeaff, C.M. “Feasibility of recommending certain replacement or alternative fats”. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63(2). S34-S49. 2009.
 
[40]  McCarthy, M. “US moves to ban trans fats”. BMJ. 347:f6749. 2013.
 
[41]  Brownell, K.D. and Pomeranz, J.L. “The Trans-Fat Ban – Food Regulation and Long-Term Health”. N Engl J Med. 370(19). 1773-1775. 2014.
 
[42]  Willet, W. “The case for banning trans fats”. Scientific American. 310(13). 2014. Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/scientific-case-for-banning-trans-fats/ (Accessed 14 July 2014).
 
[43]  [WHO]. World Health Organization. United Nations. SIXTY-SIXTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY. “Draft action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020”. 2013 Available at: http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_action_plan2013.pdf. (Accessed 24 June 2013).
 
[44]  Brazil, Ministry of Health. Department of Health Care. General Coordination of Food and Nutrition Policy. “Guidelines for the Brazilian Population”. 2005. Available at: http://dtr2001.saude.gov.br/editora/produtos/livros/pdf/05_1109_M.pdf (Accessed 22 April 2014).
 
[45]  [WHO]. World Health Organization. United Nations. WHO. “Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health: list of all documents and publications, Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly”. A57/9, 17 abr. 2004. Available at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf?ua=1 (Accessed 23 June 2011).
 
[46]  Downs, S.M., Thow, A.M. and Leeder, S.R. “The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence”. Bull World Health Organ. 91. 262-269H. 2013.
 
[47]  Silveira, B.M., Kliemann, N., Silva, D.P., Colussi, C.F. and Proença, R.P.C. “Availability and Price of Food Products with and without Trans Fatty Acids in Food Stores around Elementary Schools in Low- and Medium-Income Neighborhoods”. Ecol Food Nutr. 52(1). 63-75. 2013.
 
[48]  Galdino, T.P., Antunes, A.R., Lamas, R.C., Zingano, M.A., Cruzat, V.F., Coutinho, V.F. and Chagas, P. “Filled cookies: the cheaper the higher trans fat content?” Scientia Medica. 20(4). 270-276. 2010.
 
[49]  Drewnoswski, A. and Darmon, N. “The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost”. Am J Clin Nutr. 8(1). 265S-273S. 2005.
 
[50]  Donkin, A.J.M., Dowler, E.A., Stevenson, S.J. and Turner, S.A. ”Mapping access to food in a deprived area: the development of price and availability indices”. Public Health Nutr. 3(1), 31-38. 2000.
 
[51]  Drewnoswski, A. “Obesity and the Food Environment Dietary Energy Density and Diet Costs”. Am J Prev Med. 27(3).154-162. 2004.
 
[52]  Brazil, Ministry of Health. The National Agency of Health Surveillance. RDC Resolution nº 359 of December 2003. “Provides technical regulation of packaged food servings for purposes of nutrition labeling”. Official journal (of) the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Executive Branch, Brasília, DF, 2003.
 
[53]  Aued-Pimentel, A., Silva, S.A., Kus, M.M.M., Caruso, M.S.F. and Zenebon, O. “Evaluation of total fat, saturated and trans fatty acids in foodstuffs with the claim trans free”. Braz J Food Technol. 7(1). 51-57. 2009.
 
[54]  Proença, R.P.C. and Silveira, B.M. “Intake recommendations and labeling of trans fat in processed foods in Brazil: analysis of official documents”. Rev Saúde Pública. 46(5). 923-928. 2012.
 
[55]  Brazil, Federative Republic. “Law 8.078”. Federal Planalto, Brasília, DF, 1990.
 
[56]  Silveira, B.M., Gonzalez-Chica, D.A. and Proença, R.P.C. “Reporting of trans-fat on labels of Brazilian food products”. Public Health Nutr. 16(12). 2146-2153. 2013.
 
[57]  [DNC]. Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. “Executive Order nº 160 of 11 March 2003 on the content of Trans Fatty Acids in Oils and Fats”. 2003. Available at: http://www.fujioileurope.com/products/Functionalities/Docs/DKlegislationTFA_engl.pdf. (Accessed 12 May 2011).
 
[58]  Howlett, E., Burton, S. and Kozup, J. “How Modification of the Nutrition Facts Panel Influences Consumers at Risk for Heart Disease: The Case of Trans Fat”. J Public Policy & Marketing. 27(1), 83-97. 2008.
 
[59]  Richter, E.K., Shawish, K.A., Scheeder, M.R.L. and Colomban, P.C. “Trans fatty acid content of selected Swiss foods: The Trans Swiss Pilot study”. J Food Comp Anal. 22(5). 479-484. 2009.
 
[60]  Kuhnt, K., Baehr, M., Rohrer, C. and Jahreis, G. “Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods”. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech. 113(10). 1281-1292. 2011.