Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(12), 899-905
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-7
Open AccessArticle

Glucose Transporter 1 Expression Is Regulated by Aged Garlic Extract during Cerebral Ischemia

Mónica Espinoza-Rojo1, Carlos D. Gómez1, 2, Juan Parra Abarca1, Alma Ortiz-Plata3, Martha-Eugenia Ruiz-Tachiquín4, JoséPedraza -Chaverri5, Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas6 and Penélope Aguilera7,

1Laboratorio de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, MÉXICO

2Laboratorio de Patología Vascular Cerebral, Departamento de Neuroquímica. Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, México, MÉXICO;Departamento de Biología Celular y Fisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, MÉXICO

3Laboratorio de Neuropatología Experimental, Departamento de Neuroquímica. Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, México, MÉXICO

4Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Hospital de Pediatría 2°Piso, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, México, MÉXICO

5Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, MÉXICO

6Unidad de Neurobiología Dinámica, Departamento de Neuroquímica. Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, México, MÉXICO

7Laboratorio de Patología Vascular Cerebral, Departamento de Neuroquímica. Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, México, MÉXICO

Pub. Date: November 07, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Carlos D. Gómez, Juan Parra Abarca, Alma Ortiz-Plata, Martha-Eugenia Ruiz-Tachiquín, JoséPedraza -Chaverri, Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas and Penélope Aguilera. Glucose Transporter 1 Expression Is Regulated by Aged Garlic Extract during Cerebral Ischemia. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(12):899-905. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-12-7

Abstract

Aged garlic extract is obtained after prolonged hydroethanolic extraction of garlic cloves and is recognized for its high antioxidant content. Although evidence indicates that aged garlic extract delays brain ischemia-induced damage, the molecular mechanisms of this effect are unclear. Moderate concentration of reactive oxygen species induces glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression that in astrocytessupports brainenergy metabolism. This has suggested that reduction of excessive reactive oxygen species formation during severe ischemia maycontribute to neuroprotection. Thus, in view of the high antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract, we investigated the effect of ischemia on GLUT1 expression and its regulation after aged garlic extract treatment. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion during 2 hto produce ischemia and then were sacrificed after different times of reperfusion. In fronto-parietal cortex GLUT1 mRNA expression peaked after 1and 24h of reperfusion. Nevertheless, no significant change on total protein level was observed by Western blotting, buta severe reduction on GLUT1 positive astrocytes was detected by immunofluorescence after 2 h of reperfusion. Remarkably, aged garlic extract (360 mg/kg;i.p.) administered after is chemia increased GLUT1 mRNA expressionin cortex after 2 h of reperfusion and partially prevented the middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced reduction of GLUT1 in astrocytes. These results suggest that GLUT1 over expression in astrocytes may underlie some of the beneficial effects on neuronal survival observed with aged garlic extract treatment.

Keywords:
aged garlic extract glucose transporter antioxidants cerebral ischemia astrocytes

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Moskowitz, M.A., Lo, E.H.andIadecola, C., “The science of stroke: mechanisms in search of treatments,” Neuron,67 (2). 181-198. Jul 29. 2010.
 
[2]  Thompson, J.W., Narayanan, S.V.andPerez-Pinzon, M.A., “Redox signaling pathways involved in neuronal ischemic preconditioning,” Curr Neuropharmacol, 10 (4). 354-369. Dec. 2012.
 
[3]  Espinoza-Rojo, M., Iturralde-Rodriguez, K.I., Chanez-Cardenas, M.E., Ruiz-Tachiquin, M.E. and Aguilera, P., “Glucose transporters regulation on ischemic brain: possible role as therapeutic target,” Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem, 10 (4). 317-325. Dec 1. 2010.
 
[4]  Prebil, M., Jensen, J., Zorec, R. and Kreft, M., “Astrocytes and energy metabolism,” Arch Physiol Biochem, 117 (2). 64-69. May. 2011.
 
[5]  Cater, H.L., Chandratheva, A., Benham, C.D., Morrison, B., 3rd and Sundstrom, L.E., “Lactate and glucose as energy substrates during, and after, oxygen deprivation in rat hippocampal acute and cultured slices,” J Neurochem, 87 (6). 1381-1390. Dec. 2003.
 
[6]  Bliss, T.M., Ip, M., Cheng, E., Minami, M., Pellerin, L., Magistretti, P. and Sapolsky, R.M., “Dual-gene, dual-cell type therapy against an excitotoxic insult by bolstering neuroenergetics,” J Neurosci, 24 (27). 6202-6208. Jul 7.2004.
 
[7]  Wohnsland, S., Burgers, H.F., Kuschinsky, W. and Maurer, M.H., “Neurons and neuronal stem cells survive in glucose-free lactate and in high glucose cell culture medium during normoxia and anoxia,” Neurochem Res, 35 (10). 1635-1642. Oct. 2010.
 
[8]  Greijer, A.E., van der Groep, P., Kemming, D., Shvarts, A., Semenza, G.L., Meijer, G.A., van de Wiel, M.A., Belien, J.A., van Diest, P.J.andvan der Wall, E., “Up-regulation of gene expression by hypoxia is mediated predominantly by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1),” J Pathol, 206 (3). 291-304. Jul. 2005.
 
[9]  Colin-Gonzalez, A.L., Santana, R.A., Silva-Islas, C.A., Chanez-Cardenas, M.E., Santamaria, A. and Maldonado, P.D., “The antioxidant mechanisms underlying the aged garlic extract- and S-allylcysteine-induced protection,” Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2012 907162. 2012.
 
[10]  Aguilera, P., Chanez-Cardenas, M.E., Ortiz-Plata, A., Leon-Aparicio, D., Barrera, D., Espinoza-Rojo, M., Villeda-Hernandez, J., Sanchez-Garcia, A. and Maldonado, P.D., “Aged garlic extract delays the appearance of infarct area in a cerebral ischemia model, an effect likely conditioned by the cellular antioxidant systems,” Phytomedicine, 17 (3-4). 241-247. Mar. 2010.
 
[11]  Capasso, A., “Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L,” Molecules, 18 (1). 690-700. 2013.
 
[12]  Longa, E.Z., Weinstein, P.R., Carlson, S. and Cummins, R., “Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats,” Stroke, 20 (1). 84-91. Jan. 1989.
 
[13]  Cervantes, M.I., de Oca Balderas, P.M., de Jesus Gutierrez-Banos, J., Orozco-Ibarra, M., Fernandez-Rojas, B., Medina-Campos, O.N., Espinoza-Rojo, M., Ruiz-Tachiquin, M., Ortiz-Plata, A., Salazar, M.I., Rubio-Osornio, M., Castaneda-Saucedo, E., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Calzada, F.andAguilera, P., “Comparison of antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic fresh and aged garlic extracts and their effects on cerebral ischemia,” Food Chem, 140 (1-2). 343-352. Sep 1.2013.
 
[14]  Boado, R.J.andPardridge, W.M., “Glucose deprivation and hypoxia increase the expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter via a specific mRNA cis-acting regulatory element,” J Neurochem, 80 (3). 552-554. Feb.2002.
 
[15]  Bruckner, B.A., Ammini, C.V., Otal, M.P., Raizada, M.K. and Stacpoole, P.W., “Regulation of brain glucose transporters by glucose and oxygen deprivation,” Metabolism, 48 (4). 422-431. Apr.1999.
 
[16]  Shao, Y., Wellman, T.L., Lounsbury, K.M. and Zhao, F.Q., “Differential regulation of GLUT1 and GLUT8 expression by hypoxia in mammary epithelial cells,” Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 307 (3). R237-247. Aug 1.2014.
 
[17]  Urabe, T., Hattori, N., Nagamatsu, S., Sawa, H.andMizuno, Y., “Expression of glucose transporters in rat brain following transient focal ischemic injury,” J Neurochem, 67 (1). 265-271. Jul.1996.
 
[18]  Chavez, J.C. and LaManna, J.C., “Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in the rat cerebral cortex after transient global ischemia: potential role of insulin-like growth factor-1,” J Neurosci, 22 (20). 8922-8931. Oct 15.2002.
 
[19]  Lipton, P., “Ischemic cell death in brain neurons,” Physiol Rev, 79 (4). 1431-1568. Oct.1999.
 
[20]  Thoren, A.E., Helps, S.C., Nilsson, M.andSims, N.R., “The metabolism of C-glucose by neurons and astrocytes in brain subregions following focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” J Neurochem, 97 (4). 968-978. May. 2006.
 
[21]  Iwabuchi, S. and Kawahara, K., “Inducible astrocytic glucose transporter-3 contributes to the enhanced storage of intracellular glycogen during reperfusion after ischemia,” Neurochem Int, 59 (2). 319-325. Aug.2011.
 
[22]  Bergeron, M., Yu, A.Y., Solway, K.E., Semenza, G.L. and Sharp, F.R., “Induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its target genes following focal ischaemia in rat brain,” Eur J Neurosci, 11 (12). 4159-4170. Dec.1999.
 
[23]  Zhang, B., Yin, C.P., Zhao, Q.andYue, S.W., “Upregulation of HIF-1alpha by Hypoxia Protect Neuroblastoma Cells from Apoptosis by Promoting Survivin Expression,” Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15 (19). 8251-8257. 2014.
 
[24]  Sher, A., Fakhar-ul-Mahmood, M., Shah, S.N., Bukhsh, S. and Murtaza, G., “Effect of garlic extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits,” Adv Clin Exp Med, 21 (6). 705-711. Nov-Dec.2012.
 
[25]  Gundimeda, U., McNeill, T.H., Elhiani, A.A., Schiffman, J.E., Hinton, D.R. and Gopalakrishna, R., “Green tea polyphenols precondition against cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation via stimulation of laminin receptor, generation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of protein kinase Cepsilon,” J Biol Chem, 287 (41). 34694-34708. Oct 5.2012.
 
[26]  Guo, S., Bragina, O., Xu, Y., Cao, Z., Chen, H., Zhou, B., Morgan, M., Lin, Y., Jiang, B.H., Liu, K.J. and Shi, H., “Glucose up-regulates HIF-1 alpha expression in primary cortical neurons in response to hypoxia through maintaining cellular redox status,” J Neurochem, 105 (5). 1849-1860. Jun. 2008.
 
[27]  Matsutomo, T., Stark, T.D. and Hofmann, T., “In vitro activity-guided identification of antioxidants in aged garlic extract,” J Agric Food Chem, 61 (12). 3059-3067. Mar 27.2012.