Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(9), 587-593
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-10
Open AccessArticle

Protective Effects of Forsythiaside A, Forsythiaside B, and Phillyrin against UVA-Induced Cell Damage

Fu-Jun Jin1, Hong-Wei Zhao2, Xiao Yuan1, Zhi-Yun Wu2, Qiao-Li Wang1, Chung-Wah Ma2, Zhe Ren1, and Yi-Fei Wang1,

1Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, PR China

2Infinitus (China) Company Co., Ltd, Guangzhou, PR China

Pub. Date: September 04, 2014

Cite this paper:
Fu-Jun Jin, Hong-Wei Zhao, Xiao Yuan, Zhi-Yun Wu, Qiao-Li Wang, Chung-Wah Ma, Zhe Ren and Yi-Fei Wang. Protective Effects of Forsythiaside A, Forsythiaside B, and Phillyrin against UVA-Induced Cell Damage. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(9):587-593. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-9-10

Abstract

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation affects diverse constituents of skin and induces photoaging. Current therapeutic approaches cannot fully reverse the pathophysiology of photoaging, thus necessitating the discovery of new strategies to protect skin from UV radiation. Natural products have long been reported to possess photoprotective effects. Herein, we investigated the potential anti-UVA effects of forsythiaside A, forsythiaside B, and phillyrin extracted from Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. In vitro, all three compounds significantly prevented cytotoxicity, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest caused by a low dose of UVA. All three compounds also inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our results suggest that these three compounds could be preventives against UVA-induced skin damage.

Keywords:
Forsythiaside A Forsythiaside B Phillyrin Anti-UVA Anti-inflammatory

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Young, J.C., “Physical dimensions of aging, 2nd edition”. Am. J. Hum. Biol 18. 156-158. 2006.
 
[2]  Kurban, R.S., and Bhawan, J., “Histologic changes in skin associated with aging”. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16. 908-914. 1990.
 
[3]  Yaar, M., Eller, M.S., and Gilchrest, B.A., “Fifty years of skin aging”. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 7. 51-58. 2002.
 
[4]  Fisher, G.J., Kang, S., Varani, J., Bata-Csorgo, Z., Wan, Y., Datta, S., and Voorhees, J.J., “Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging”. Arch Dermatol 138. 1462-1470. 2002.
 
[5]  Scharffetter-Kochanek, K., Brenneisen, P., Wenk, J., Herrmann, G., Ma, W., Kuhr, L., Meewes, C., and Wlaschek, M., “Photoaging of the skin from phenotype to mechanisms”. Exp Gerontol 35. 307-316. 2000.
 
[6]  Gilchrest, B.A., “Photoaging”. Nat Milest E2-E6. 2013.
 
[7]  Ichihashi, M., Ueda, M., Budiyanto, A., Bito, T., Oka, M., Fukunaga, M., Tsuru, K., and Horikawa, T., “UV-induced skin damage”. Toxicology 189. 21-39. 2003.
 
[8]  Reichrath, J., and Nurnberg, B., “Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis versus skin cancerdevelopment: The Janus faces of solar UV-radiation”. Dermatoendocrinol 1. 253-261. 2009.
 
[9]  Katiyar, S.K., Afaq, F., Perez, A., and Mukhtar, H., “Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress”. Carcinogenesis 22. 287-294. 2001.
 
[10]  Nichols, J.A., and Katiyar, S.K., “Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms”. Arch Dermatol Res 302. 71-83. 2001.
 
[11]  Qu, H., Zhang, Y., Chai, X., and Sun, W., “Isoforsythiaside, an antioxidant and antibacterial phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Forsythia suspensa”. Bioorg Chem 40. 87-91. 2012.
 
[12]  Piao, X.L., Jang, M.H., Cui, J., and Piao, X., “Lignans from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa”. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18. 1980-1984. 2008.
 
[13]  Lu, T., Piao, X.L., Zhang, Q., Wang, D., Piao, X.S., and Kim, S.W., “Protective effects of Forsythia suspensa extract against oxidative stress induced by diquat in rats”. Food Chem Toxicol 48. 764-770. 2010.
 
[14]  Zhong, W.T., Wu, Y.C., Xie, X.X., Zhou, X., Wei, M.M., Soromou, L.W., Ci, X.X., and Wang, D.C., “Phillyrin attenuates LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation via suppression of MAPK and NF-kappaB activation in acute lung injury mice”. Fitoterapia 90. 132-139. 2013.
 
[15]  Jiang, W.L., Tian, J.W., Fu, F.H., Zhu, H.B., and Hou, J., “Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of Forsythoside B: in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury”. Eur J Pharmacol 640. 75-81. 2010.
 
[16]  Cheng, G., Zhao, Y., Li, H., Wu, Y., Li, X., Han, Q., Dai, C.S., and Li, Y.H., “Forsythiaside attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by downregulating the NF-kappaB signaling pathway”. Exp Ther Med 7. 179-184. 2014.
 
[17]  Douki, T., Reynaud-Angelin, A., Cadet, J., and Sage, E., “Bipyrimidine photoproducts rather than oxidative lesions are the main type of DNA damage involved in the genotoxic effect of solar UVA radiation”. Biochemistry 42. 9221-9226. 2003.
 
[18]  Peres, P.S., Terra, V.A., Guarnier, F.A., Cecchini, R., and Cecchini, A.L., “Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin”. J Photochem Photobiol B 103. 93-97. 2011.
 
[19]  Filip, A., Clichici, S., Daicoviciu, D., Catoi, C., Bolfa, P., Postescu, I. D., Gal, A., Baldea, I., Gherman, C., and Muresan, A., “Chemopreventive effects of Calluna vulgaris and Vitis vinifera extracts on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice”. J Physiol Pharmacol 62. 385-392. 2011.
 
[20]  Cadet J., and Douki, T., “Oxidatively generated damage to DNA by UVA radiation in cells and human skin”. J Invest Dermatol 131. 1005-1007. 2011.
 
[21]  Darr D., and Fridovich, I., “Free radicals in cutaneous biology”. J Invest Dermatol 102. 671-675. 1994.
 
[22]  Peus, D., Vasa, R.A., Meves, A., Pott, M., Beyerle, A., Squillace, K., and Pittelkow, M.R., “H2O2 is an important mediator of UVB-induced EGF-receptor phosphorylation in cultured keratinocytes”. J Invest Dermatol 110. 966-971. 1998.
 
[23]  Cortat, B., Garcia, C.C. M., Quinet, A., Schuch, A.P., de Lima-Bessa, K.M., and Menck, C.F.M., “The relative roles of DNA damage induced by UVA irradiation in human cells”. Photochem Photobiol Sci 12. 1483-1495. 2013.
 
[24]  Kunisada, M., Masaki, T., Ono, R., Morinaga, H., Nakano, E., Yogianti, F., Okunishi, K., Sugiyama, H., and Nishigori, C. “Hydrochlorothiazide enhances UVA-induced DNA damage”. Photochem Photobiol 89. 649-654. 2013.
 
[25]  Laat, A., Tilburg, M., Leun, J.C., Vloten, W.A., and Gruijl, F.R. “Cell cycle kinetics following UVA irradiation in comparison to UVB and UVC irradiation”. Photochem Photobiol 63. 492-497. 1996.
 
[26]  Kastan, M.B., Onyekwere, O., Sidransky, D., Vogelstein, B., and Craig, R.W. “Participation of p53 protein in the cellular response to DNA damage”. Cancer Res 51. 6304-6311. 1991.
 
[27]  Kuerbitz, S.J., Plunkett, B.S., Walsh, W.V., and Kastan, M.B. “Wild-type p53 is a cell cycle checkpoint determinant following irradiation”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89. 7491-7495. 1992.
 
[28]  Ouhtit, A., Muller, H.K., Davis, D.W., Ullrich, S.E., McConkey, D., and Ananthaswamy, H.N., “Temporal events in skin injury and the early adaptive responses in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin”. Am J Pathol 156. 201-207. 2000.
 
[29]  Donoso, L.A., Kim, D., Frost, A., Callahan, A., annd Hageman, G. “The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration”. Surv Ophthalmol 51. 137-152. 2006.
 
[30]  Bennett, M.F., Robinson, M.K., Baron, E.D., and Cooper, K.D., “Skin immune systems and inflammation: protector of the skin or promoter of aging?”. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 13. 15-19. 2008.
 
[31]  Dudhgaonkar, S., Thyagarajan, A, and Sliva, D., “Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum”. Int Immunopharmacol 9. 1272-1280. 2009.
 
[32]  Jiang, W.L., Zhang, S.P., and Zhu, H.B. “Forsythoside B protects against experimental sepsis by modulating inflammatory factors”. Phytother Res 26. 981-987. 2012.
 
[33]  Reuter, S., Gupta, S.C., Chaturvedi, M.M., and Aggarwal, B.B., “Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?”. Free Radic Biol Med 49. 1603-1616. 2010.