Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(7), 388-394
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-7-10
Open AccessArticle

Lipid Contents, Fatty Acid Profiles and Nutritional Quality of Nine Wild Caught Freshwater Fish Species of the Yangtze Basin, China

Zhimin Zhang1, Lianhua Liu2, Congxin Xie1, Dapeng Li1, Jun Xu3, Meng Zhang4 and Min Zhang1,

1College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan, P. R. China

2Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, P. R. China

3Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China

4Jiangxi Academy of Environmental Sciences, Nanchang, P. R. China

Pub. Date: July 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Zhimin Zhang, Lianhua Liu, Congxin Xie, Dapeng Li, Jun Xu, Meng Zhang and Min Zhang. Lipid Contents, Fatty Acid Profiles and Nutritional Quality of Nine Wild Caught Freshwater Fish Species of the Yangtze Basin, China. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(7):388-394. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-7-10

Abstract

Owing to the favorable effects of essential fatty acids on human health, a great degree of interest on fatty acid profiles and nutritional quality of fish species have been of interest in the recent years. The present study investigated the lipid content, fatty acid profiles and nutritional quality in nine freshwater fish species from the Ganjiang River in the Yangtze basin, China. Results showed that total lipid content of the dorsal muscle was 0.59–2.2% and that was inversely linked to moisture content (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). Wide ranges of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (21.83 to 50.53%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (19.43 to 45.60%) were found. The ratios of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ranged from 0.25 to 1.16 (p < 0.001). N-3 PUFA was dominated by eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids varying from 2.77 to 15.11% of total fatty acids. Indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity (IA and IT) based on fatty acid compositions ranged from 0.36 to 0.52 and 0.36 to 0.64 in all species, respectively (p < 0.001). These results indicated fatty acid profiles were different among the fish species and the potential of these species as dietary source of essential fatty acids from the nutritional standpoint.

Keywords:
lipids polyunsaturated fatty acids fish nutritional quality Ganjiang River

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Siriwardhana, N., Kalupahana, N.S., and Moustaid-Moussa, N. 2012. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 65: 211-222.
 
[2]  Benitez-Santana, T., Masuda, R., Juárez Carrillo, E., Ganuza, E., Valencia, A., Hernández-Cruz, C.M., and Izquierdo, M.S. 2007. Dietary n-3 HUFA deficiency induces a reduced visual response in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Aquaculture. 264: 408-417.
 
[3]  Gogus, U., and Smith, C. 2010. n-3 Omega fatty acids: a review of current knowledge. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 45: 417-436.
 
[4]  Leonard, W.R., Snodgrass, J.J., and Robertson, M.L. 2007. Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27: 311-327.
 
[5]  Broadhurst, C.L., Cunnane, S.C., and Crawford, M.A. 1998. Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. Bri. J. Nutr. 79: 3-21.
 
[6]  He, K., Song, Y., Daviglus, M. L., Liu, K., Van Horn, L., Dyer, A. R., and Greenland, P. 2004. Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circulation. 109: 2705-2711.
 
[7]  Singh, R.B., Niaz, M.A., Sharma, J.P., Kumar, R., Rastogi, V., and Moshiri, M. 1997. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival-4. Cardiovasc. Drug Ther. 11: 485-491.
 
[8]  Steffens, W. 1997. Effects of variation in essential fatty acids in fish feeds on nutritive value of freshwater fish for humans. Aquaculture. 151: 97-119.
 
[9]  FAO. 2009. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
 
[10]  Manirujjaman, M., Khan, M.M.H., Meftah Uddin, Minarul Islam, Matiar Rahman, Khatun, M., Shahangir Biswas, and Islam, M.A. 2014. Comparison of Different Nutritional Parameters and Oil Properties of Two Fish Species (Catla catla and Cirrhinus cirrhosus) from Wild and Farmed Sources Found in Bangladesh. J. Food Nutr. Res. 2: 47-50.
 
[11]  Grigorakis, K., Alexis, M.N., Taylor, K., and Hole, M. 2002. Comparison of wild and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); composition, appearance and seasonal variations. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 37: 477-484.
 
[12]  Støttrup, J., Jacobsen, C., Tomkiewicz, J., and Jarlbæk, H. 2013. Modification of essential fatty acid composition in broodstock of cultured European eel Anguilla anguilla L. Aquacult Nutr. 19: 172-185.
 
[13]  Nettleton, J.A., and Exler, J. 1992. Nutrients in Wild and Farmed Fish and Shellfish. J. Food Sci. 57: 257-260.
 
[14]  Claret, A., Guerrero, L., Aguirre, E., Rincón, L., Hernández, M.D., Martínez, I., Benito Peleteiro, J., Grau, A., and Rodríguez-Rodríguez, C. 2012. Consumer preferences for sea fish using conjoint analysis: Exploratory study of the importance of country of origin, obtaining method, storage conditions and purchasing price. Food Qual. Prefer. 26: 259-266.
 
[15]  Verbeke, W., Sioen, I., Brunsø, K., De Henauw, S., and Van Camp, J. 2007. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish: exploratory insights from Belgium. Aquacult. Int. 15: 121-136.
 
[16]  Du, Z.Y., Zhang, J., Wang, C., Li, L., Man, Q., Lundebye, A.K., and Frøyland, L. 2012. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health. Sci. Total Environ. 416: 187-199.
 
[17]  Zhang, D.P., Zhang, X.Y., Yu, Y.X., Li, J.L., Yu, Z.Q., Wang, D.Q., Wu, D.Q., Sheng, G.Y., and Fu, J.M. 2012. Intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls via consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China: A risk–benefit assessment. Food Chem. 132: 975-981.
 
[18]  AOAC. 1990. Association of official analytical chemists, official methods of analysis, 15th ed. AOAC, Washington, DC.
 
[19]  Bligh, E.G., and Dyer, W.J. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Phy. 37: 911-917.
 
[20]  Weihrauch, J.L., Posati, L.P., Anderson, B.A., and Exler, J. 1977. Lipid conversion factors for calculating fatty acid contents of foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 54: 36-40.
 
[21]  Ulbricht, T., and Southgate, D. 1991. Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet. 338: 985-992.
 
[22]  Ackman, R.G. 1994. Seafood lipids. Blackie Academic and Professional, London.
 
[23]  Ackman, R.G., McLeod, C., Misra, K.K., and Rakshit, S. 2002. Lipids and fatty acids of five freshwater food fishes of India. J. Food Lipids. 9: 127-145.
 
[24]  González, S., Flick, G., O’keefe, S., Duncan, S., McLean, E., and Craig, S. 2006. Composition of farmed and wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J. Food Compos. Anal. 19: 720-726.
 
[25]  Ramos Filho, M.M., Ramos, M.I.L., Hiane, P.A., and De Souza, E.MT. 2010. Nutritional value of seven freshwater fish species from the Brazilian pantanal. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87: 1461-1467.
 
[26]  Kinsella, J., Shimp, J., Mai, J., and Weihrauch, J. 1977. Fatty acid content and composition of freshwater finfish. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 54: 424-429.
 
[27]  Özogul, Y., Özogul, F., and Alagoz, S. 2007. Fatty acid profiles and fat contents of commercially important seawater and freshwater fish species of Turkey: A comparative study. Food Chem. 103: 217-223.
 
[28]  Rasoarahona, J.R., Barnathan, G., Bianchini, J.P., and Gaydou, E.M. 2005. Influence of season on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of three tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus, O. macrochir and Tilapia rendalli) from Madagascar. Food Chem. 91: 683-694.
 
[29]  Palmeri, G., Turchini, G.M., and De Silva, S.S. 2007. Lipid characterisation and distribution in the fillet of the farmed Australian native fish, Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii). Food Chem. 102: 796-807.
 
[30]  Usydus, Z., Szlinder-Richert, J., Adamczyk, M., and Szatkowska, U. 2011. Marine and farmed fish in the Polish market: Comparison of the nutritional value. Food Chem. 126: 78-84.
 
[31]  Belling, G., Abbey, M., Campbell, J., and Campbell, G. 1997. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensiand (Australia) fish. Lipids. 32: 621-625.
 
[32]  Rahnan, S.A., Huah, T.S., Nassan, O., and Daud, N.M. 1995. Fatty acid composition of some Malaysian freshwater fish. Food Chem. 54: 45-49.
 
[33]  Osman, H., Suriah, A., and Law, E. 2001. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of selected marine fish in Malaysian waters. Food Chem. 73: 55-60.
 
[34]  Li, G., Sinclair, A.J., and Li, D. 2011. Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from China. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 1871-1881.
 
[35]  Lands, W.E. 1986. Fish and human health. Academic Press Inc., Orlando.
 
[36]  Sargent, J. 1997. Fish oils and human diet. Brit. J. Nutr. 78: S5.
 
[37]  Simopoulos, A.P. 2008. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Med. 233: 674-688.
 
[38]  FAO/WHO. 1994. Fats and oils in human nutrition. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consulation, 19-26 October 1993, Rome.
 
[39]  Mozaffarian, D., and Rimm, E.B. 2006. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 296: 1885-1899.
 
[40]  Subhadra, B., Lochmann, R., Rawles, S., and Chen, R. 2006. Effect of dietary lipid source on the growth, tissue composition and hematological parameters of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquaculture. 255: 210-222.
 
[41]  Delfieh, P., Rezaei, M., Hosseini, H., Vali Hosseini, S., Zohrehbakhsh, E., and Regenstein, J.M. 2013. Effects of cooking methods on proximate composition and fatty acids profile of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus). J. Aquat. Food Prod. T. 22: 353-360
 
[42]  Fehily, A., Pickering, J., and Yarnell, J. 1994. Dietary indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity and ischaemic heart disease risk: the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Brit. J. Nutr. 71: 249-257.
 
[43]  Hoseini, M., Baboli, M., and Sary, A. 2013. Chemical composition and fatty acids profile of farmed Big head carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) filet. AACL Bioflux 6: 202-210.
 
[44]  Rasmussen, R.S., Nettleton, R., and Morrissey, M.T. 2005. A review of mercury in seafood. J. Aquat. Food Prod. T. 14: 71-100.
 
[45]  Zhang, Z., Zhang, M., Xu, J., and Li, D. 2014. Balanced fatty acid intake benefits and mercury exposure risks: An integrated analysis of Chinese commercial freshwater fish and potential guidelines for consumption. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess.