Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022, 10(2), 98-104
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-10-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Chicken Meat

Nagwa Thabet Elsharawy1, 2, , Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani1 and Amr A. El-Waseif3

1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21959, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley University 72713, Egypt

3Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University 11651, Cairo, Egypt

Pub. Date: January 16, 2022

Cite this paper:
Nagwa Thabet Elsharawy, Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani and Amr A. El-Waseif. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Chicken Meat. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022; 10(2):98-104. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-10-2-3


Improper use of the antimicrobials as E. coli giving the microorganism multi-resistance against many antimicrobials by gene mutation on integrons, transposons and plasmids. Therefore, our aim in this study is to 1) examine antibiotics resistance phenotype and genotype in Escherichia coli, 2) identifying the structure of bacterial resistance genes on whole-genome sequencing against multi-drug resistant of Escherichia coli in marketed poultry meat. Samples collected, prepared and Bacteriological examination, Antimicrobial sensitivity test performed, Serological identification of Escherichia coli isolates. Results declared that; the prevalence of E. coli from tested chicken meat samples of 100 chicken meat samples surveyed against E. coli the result declared that about 40%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was; antibiotics of choice against E. coli Sulfonamides, Cephalosporins, Tetracyclines, Quinolones. Serologically, STEC (O157:H7) 30%, ETEC (O142) 10%, EHEC (O26:H11). The subunit B of shiga-like toxin (SLT) gene appeared as a homogenous band. Heat-labile toxin (LT) gene was screened in both genomic DNA and plasmid preps in tested strains. Control STEC as it represents a danger to the poultry consumers. We recommended to increase the hygienic measures during slaughtering, processing and/or handling of chicken carcasses and avoidance unnecessary usage of any antimicrobials to avoid appearance of new antimicrobials resistant.

shiga toxin-producing E. coli integrons plasmids Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) gentamycin enterotoxins ciprofloxacine

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Adeyanju T, Ishola O. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Springerplus. 2014; 3: 139.
[2]  EL-Kholy M, EL-Shinawy H, Seliem H, Zeinhom A. Potential risk of some pathogens in table eggs. Journal Of Veterinary Medical Research. 2020; 27 (1): 52-65.
[3]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019). National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).
[4]  Cunrath O, Meinel M, Maturana P, Fanous J, Buyck J, Saint P, Auguste A, Helena B, Smith S, Körner J, Dehio C, Trebosc V, Kemmer C, Neher R, Egli R, Bumann A. Quantitative contribution of efflux to multi-drug resistance of clinical Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. EBioMedicine. 2019; 41: 479-487.
[5]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020). National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP).
[6]  WHO. Manual for the laboratory identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens of public health importance in the developing world. WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH/ 2002. 2003; 15:121-140.
[7]  Alderman D and Smith P. Development of draft protocols of standard reference methods for antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing of bacteria associated with fish diseases. Aquaculture, 2001; 196: 211-243.
[8]  Ewing H. The genus Shigella, in Edwards and Ewing’s Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, W.H. Ewing, Editor. 1986, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.: New York. p. 135-172.
[9]  Partridge S. R., Kwong S. M., Firth N., Jensen S. O. Mobile genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2018;31(4):17.
[10]  Wu S, Huang J, Wu Q, Zhang J, Zhang F, Yang X, Wu H, Zeng H, Chen M, Ding Y, Wang J, Lei T, Zhang S and Xue L. Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat and Meat Products in China: Incidence, Antibiotic Resistance and Genetic Diversity. Front Microbiology. 2018; 9: 2767.
[11]  Ngullie E., Walling I., Krose M., Bhatt B. P. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. Vol. 28. India: (2011). Traditional Animal Husbandry Practices in Tribal States of Eastern Himalaya, India: A Case Study; pp. 23-28.
[12]  Sato H., Takahashi T., Sumitani K., Takatsu H., Urano S. Glucocorticoid generates ROS to induce oxidative injury in the hippocampus, leading to impairment of cognitive function of rats. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 47 (2010), pp. 224-232.
[13]  Shaltout F, Lamda H, and Edris E. Bacteriological examination of cooked meat and chicken meals. Cohesive journal of microbiology & infectious disease. 2020, 3(5): 1-5.
[14]  Tomova A, Ivanova L, Buschmann H, Godfrey P, Cabello FC. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and class 1 integrons in quinolone-resistant marine bacteria and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from an aquacultural area. Microb Ecol. 2018; 75: 104-12.
[15]  Liu Y, Wang Y, Walsh R, Yi X, Zhang R, Spencer J. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016; 16: 161-8.
[16]  Jakabi M, Gelli D, Ristori C, Paula A, Sakuma H and Lopez G. Presence of Salmonella Spp and Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Raw Meat, In São Paulo City, Brazil and Evaluation of Low Temperature (Refrigeration and Freezing) Resistance of These Bacteria. Determination of human pathogen profiles in food by quality assured microbial assays Proceedings of a final Research Coordination Meeting held in Mexico City, Mexico, IAEA (internal atomic energy agency) 2002; 22-26.
[17]  Deng Y, Wu Y, Jiang L, Tan A, Zhang R, Luo L. Multi-drug resistance mediated by class 1 integrons in Aeromonas isolated from farmed freshwater animals. Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 935.
[18]  Schulz S, Stephan A, Hahn S, Bortesi L, Jarczowski F, Bettmann U. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112: E5454-E60.
[19]  Collins. J.D. Slaughtering and processing of livestock: Journal Agricultural Mechanization and Automation, 2000, 2: 393.
[20]  Rani T, Hugo A, Hugo C, Muchenje V. Effect of post-slaughter handling during distribution on the microbiological quality and safety of meat in the formal and informal sectors in South Africa: A review. South African Journal Of Animal Science 2017; 47(3): 1-5.
[21]  Younis G, Awad A, Mohamed N. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. Veterinary world. 2017; 10: 1167-1172.
[22]  Ammar M, El-Hamid I, Eid A, El Oksh S. Insight into antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of emergent multidrug resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Egypt: How closely related are they? Rev. Med. Vet., 2015; 166(9-10): 304-314.
[23]  Adeyanju T, Ishola O. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Springerplus. 2014; 3: 139.
[24]  Bie Y, Fang M, Li Q, Wang Y, Xu H. Identification and characterization of new resistance-conferring SGI1s (Salmonella genomic island 1) in Proteus mirabilis. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 10-21.
[25]  Ramadan H, Awad A, Ateya A. Detection of phenotypes, virulence genes and phylotypes of avian pathogenic and human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Egypt. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries., 2016; 10(6): 584-59.
[26]  Eid A, Erfan M. Characterization of E. coli associated with high mortality of poultry flocks. Assiut Vet. Med. J., 2013; 59: 51-61.
[27]  Mohamed A, Shehata A, Rafeek E. Virulence genes content and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from broiler chickens. Hindawi Publ. Corp. Vet. Med. Int., 2014; 195189, 6.
[28]  Li Y, Dai X, Zeng J, Gao Y, Zhang Z, Zhang L. Characterization of the global distribution and diversified plasmid reservoirs of the colistin resistance gene mcr-9. Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 8113.
[29]  Zhang T, Wang CG, Zhong XH. Survey on sulfonamide antibiotic- resistant genotype and phenotype of avian Escherichia coli in North China. Poult Sci. 2012; 91: 884-887.
[30]  Tang X, Tan C, Zhang X, Zhao Z, Xia X. Antimicrobial resistances of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from swine in China. Microb Pathog. 2011; 50: 207-212.
[31]  Momtaz H, Jamshidi A. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: Serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties. Poult. Sci., 2013; 92(5): 1305-1313.
[32]  Ćwiek K, Woźniak‑Biel A, Karwańska M, Siedlecka M, Lammens Ch, Rebelo A, Hendriksen R, Kuczkowski M, Chmielewska‑Władyka M, Wieliczko A. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of mcr‑1‑positive multidrug‑resistant Escherichia coli ST93, ST117, ST156, ST10, and ST744 isolated from poultry in Poland. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2021; e42770-021.
[33]  Li R, He L, Hao L, Zhou Y, Jiang H. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial- Resistant Escherichia coli from Farm-Raised Diarrheic Sika Deer in Northeastern China. PLOS ONE. 2013; 8(9): e73342.
[34]  Kim S, Woo JH, Kim N, Kim MH, Kim SY, Son JH, Moon DC, Lim SK, Shin M, Lee JC. Characterization Of chromo- some-mediated colistin resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock in Korea. Infect Drug Resist. 2019; 12: 3291-3299.
[35]  Kluytmansvan den Bergh F, Huizinga P, Bonten J, Bos M, De Bruyne K, Friedrich W, Rossen W, Savelkoul H, Kluytmans A. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009. Euro Surveill. 2016; 21: 30149.
[36]  Villegas NA, Baronetti J, Albesa I, Polifroni R, Parma A, Etch- everría A, Becerra M, Padola N, Paraje M. Relevance of biofilms in the pathogenesis of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. Scientific World Journal. 2013: 607258.