Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022, 10(1), 58-64
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-10-1-8
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Heat Treatment on the Nutrient Profile of Cashew Kernel Milk (Anacardium occidentale L.)

Carine N’Cho1, 2, , Doudjo Soro2, Mohamed Anderson Yeo3 and Ernest Kouadio Koffi1

1Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Sciences Alimentaires, Unité de formation et de Recherches de Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny de cocody (UFHB) Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

2Laboratoire de Génie des procédés, Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët Boigny (INP-HB) BP 2117 Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire

3Département agronomie et foresterie, UFR Ingénierie Agronomique Forestière et Environnemental, Université Polytechnique de Man, Côte d'Ivoire

Pub. Date: January 09, 2022

Cite this paper:
Carine N’Cho, Doudjo Soro, Mohamed Anderson Yeo and Ernest Kouadio Koffi. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Nutrient Profile of Cashew Kernel Milk (Anacardium occidentale L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2022; 10(1):58-64. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-10-1-8

Abstract

During cashew processing, many kernels are broken and cracked, which exposes them to rapid deterioration and thus negatively impacts their market value. Consequently, broken kernels represent non-exportable cashew by-products. In this study, milk was produced from broken cashew kernels as a value-added product and the effect of heat treatment time on the biochemical characteristics of this milk was determined in order to add value. The milk was boiled at 98°C for 45 min during which samples were regularly taken every 15 min and subjected to biochemical analysis. The water content of cashew milk decreased significantly (P<0.05) during this treatment, from 88.9% to 84.96%. Energy macronutrients were significantly concentrated during the 45 min treatment (p<0.001). Thus, carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents increased from 1.79% to 2.22%; 2.94% to 4.82% and 6.24% to 7.75%, respectively; and generate an energy value evolving from 58.58 to 83.26 Kcal. Also, boiling milk increases its mineral density and leads to the highest ash content (0.25%) after 45 min of treatment. This mineral concentration provided mineral salt contents from 171.7 to 285.8 mg Mg/L, 175.1 to 229.5 mg Fe/L, 100.6 to 101.4 mg Ca/L, 29.4 to 74.4 mg K/L, 46.4 to 60.9 mg Zn/L and 27.2 to 20.6 mg Na/L of product. In addition, heat treatment significantly influenced the presence of anti-nutritional factors (P<0.001) in cashew milk, leading to a decrease in the contents of tannins (19.52 mg/100 g DM), phytates (37.57 mg/100 g DM) and oxalates (44.52 mg/100 g DM) to values of 15.55, 28, 46 and 40.60 mg/100 g DM after 15 min, respectively, and then to their total absence after 30 min of treatment. Heat treatment increases the nutritional value of cashew kernel milk while removing the anti-nutrients typical of vegetable milks.

Keywords:
cashew almond milk broken almonds boiling nutritional composition anti-nutrients

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Trepko, P, La culture de l’anacardier dans la Région de Bassila au Nord Bénin, Projet de restauration des ressources forestières de Bassila, République du Benin, GTZ, 2003, 53.
 
[2]  Lacroix E, Les anacardiers, les noix de cajou et la filière Anacarde à Bassila et au Bénin, Projet Restauration des Ressources Forestières de Bassila, République du Benin, GTZ 2003, 75.
 
[3]  Lyannaz, J-P, “Vers une relance de l’anacarde au Mozambique”, Fruits, 61(2). 125-133. 2006.
 
[4]  FAOSTAT, Base de données sur l’alimentation et l’agriculture, 2019.
 
[5]  Lautié, E.M., Dorniera, F., De Souza, M. et Reynes, M, “Les produits de l’anacardier: caractéristiques, voies de valorisation et marchés”, Fruits, 56(4). 235-248.2001.
 
[6]  Segura, R., Javierre, C., Lizarraga, M.A. and Ros, E, “Other relevant components of nuts: phytosterols, folate and minerals”, British Journal of Nutrition, 96. 36-44. 2006.
 
[7]  Phillips, K.M., Ruggio, D.M. and Ashraf-Khorassani, M, “Phytosterol composition of nuts and seeds commonly consumed in the United States”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(24). 9436 -9445.2005.
 
[8]  Soro, D, Optimisation de la production des amandes entières blanches de cajou. Mémoire d’ingénieur des Industries Agro-Alimentaires. Département Génie Chimique et Agroalimentaire ; Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire, 2002, 62 .
 
[9]  Valencia‐Flores, D. C., Hernández‐Herrero, M., Guamis, B. & Ferragut, V, “Comparing the effects of ultra‐high‐pressure homogenization and conventional thermal treatments on the microbiological, physical, and chemical quality of almond beverages”, Journal of food science, 78(2). 199-205.2013.
 
[10]  Al-Wahsh, I. A., Horner, H. T., Palmer, R. G., Reddy, M. B., & Massey, L. K.. “Oxalate and phytate of soy foods”; Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53. 5670-5674. 2005.
 
[11]  Ritter, M. M. C., & Savage, G. P, “Soluble and insoluble oxalate content of nuts”, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20. 169-174. 2007.
 
[12]  Sethi, S., Tyagi, S.K. and Anurag, R.K, “Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review”, Journal of Food Science Technology, 53(9). 3408-3423. 2016.
 
[13]  Makinde, F.M., Akande, A.O. and Olagunju, O.F, “Impact of cooking time on the nutritional profile of sesame milk”, African Journal of Food Science, 8(10). 504-509. 2014.
 
[14]  Orhevba, B.A, “The effects of cooking time on the nutritional parameters of soya milk”, American Journal of Food Technology, 6(4). 298-305. 2011.
 
[15]  AOAC, Official Method of Analysis. Association of Agricultural Chemist, Washington D.C., 1995, 34.
 
[16]  ISO/TS22113, Milk and milk products-Determination of the titratable acidity of milk fat, 1st Edition, New Zealand, 2012.
 
[17]  AOAC, Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th Edition, Washington, D.C., 1990, 774.
 
[18]  Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.T. and Smith F, “Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances”, Analytical Chemistry, 28. 350-356. 1956.
 
[19]  Bernfeld, P, “Amylases, α and β”, Methods in Enzymology, 1.149-158. 1955.
 
[20]  Folch, J., Lees, M. and Stanley, G.S, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226(1). 497-509. 1957.
 
[21]  FAO, Food energy methods of analysis and conversion factors, FAO Ed, Rome, Italy, 2002, 97.
 
[22]  Diez, M. and Nguyen, P, Obésité: épidémiologie, physiopathologie et prise en charge du chien obèse. In Encyclopédie de la nutrition clinique, Aniwa, Paris, 2006. 2-57.
 
[23]  AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists. 17th Edition, Washington, DC, USA, 2000, 771.
 
[24]  Bainbridge, Z, Tomlins, K, Willings, K. and Westby, A, Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staple. Part 4 advanced methods, National resources institute, University of Greenwich, UK, 1996, 43-79.
 
[25]  Day, R. and Underwood, A, Quantitative Analysis, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall Publication of Delhi India, 1986, 701.
 
[26]  Latta, M. and Eskin, M, “A simple and rapid colorimetric method for phytate determination”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28.1313-1315. 1980.
 
[27]  Akintunde, T.Y. and Souley, A, “Effect of processing methods on quality of soymilk”, Pakist. Journal of Nutrition, 8. 1156-1158. 2009.
 
[28]  Yau-Chun, L.V., Huan-Lu, S., Xin, L., Liang, W. and Shun-Tang, G, “Influence of blanching and grinding with a hot water on beany and non-beany favour in soy milk”, Journal of food Science, 76 (1). 20-25. 2011.
 
[29]  Oboh, G. and Omotosho, O, “Effect of types of coagulant on the nutritive value and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility of tofu”, Journal of food Technology, 3. 182-187. 2005.
 
[30]  Duhan, A., Hhetarpaul, N. and Bishnoi, S, “Content of phytic acid and HCl-extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron as affected by various domestic processing and cooking methods”, Food Chemistry, 78(1).9-14. 2002.
 
[31]  Kaack, K, “Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) “, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 46. 353-360. 1994.
 
[32]  OMS, Le sel: une habitude à perdre. Guide technique en vue de réduire l’apport en sel, Programme SHAKE; Organisation mondiale de la Santé, Genève, Suisse, 2017, 58.