Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(11), 585-590
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-11-5
Open AccessArticle

Comparative Study of the Nutritional Value of Unripe and Ripe Arils of Blighia sapida (K. D. KOENIG)

Mamatchi Mélila1, , Novignon Ezi2, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro2, Essodjolon Kanabiya2, Kwami Kolor2, Gnimdou Abli2, Kokouvi Dotse2 and Kossi Honoré Koumaglo2

1Department of Biochemistry/Nutrition, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé (Togo)

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lomé (Togo)

Pub. Date: November 10, 2021

Cite this paper:
Mamatchi Mélila, Novignon Ezi, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro, Essodjolon Kanabiya, Kwami Kolor, Gnimdou Abli, Kokouvi Dotse and Kossi Honoré Koumaglo. Comparative Study of the Nutritional Value of Unripe and Ripe Arils of Blighia sapida (K. D. KOENIG). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 9(11):585-590. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-9-11-5


B. sapida arils are of great socio-economic importance in West Africa due to their food uses. Several studies have focused on mature arils but few studies have focused on immature ones. The objective of this work was to assess the nutritional potential of mature and immature arils of these species. The arils were collected in Kara (Northern-Togo) and in Lomé (Southern-Togo). The organic substances contained in the arils were determined according to the methods of AOAC while the minerals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium and by molecular absorption spectrophotometry for phosphorus. The main results showed that the mature and immature arils of B. sapida contain alkaloids, tannins, reducing compounds and carbohydrates and are a good source of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. Furthermore, immature arils showed a better dietary fiber content compared to mature arils. The metabolisable energy of the two types of arils were 526.78 ± 39.87 and 615.95 ± 33.90 Kcal/100 g of dry matter, respectively for the unripe arils and the ripe ones. All these results show that these arils have an appreciable nutritional value and can contribute to food safety. This justifies their food uses.

Blighia sapida Unripe and ripe arils Biochemical composition Nutritional value

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Glesinger E., The Role of Forests, World Economic Development, (2007) 14(2): 14-18.
[2]  Morton J. F. and Dowling C. F., “Fruits of warm climates”. Miami, (1987). Available at: Accessed on: 09/11/2019.
[3]  Whitaker T. B., Saltsman J. J., Ware G. M., Slate A. B., Evaluating the performance of sampling plans to detect hypoglycin A in ackee fruit shipments imported into the United States. J AOAC Int., (2007) 90 (4): 1060-1072.
[4]  Dossou M. K. R., Codjia J. T. C., et Biaou G., Utilisations, fonctions et perceptions de l’espèce-ressource Blighia sapida (ackee ou faux acajou) dans le Nord-Ouest du Bénin, Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique du Bénin, (2004) 45: 13.
[5]  Falloon O. C., Baccus-Taylor G. S. H., and Minott D. A., A Comparative Study of the Nutrient Composition of Tree-Ripened versus Rack-Ripened Ackees (Blighia sapida), The West Indian Journal of Engineering, (2014) 36(2): 69-75.
[6]  Ouattara H. et Amonkan A. K., Comparaison de la biotolérance de l’huile extraite de l’arille de Blighia sapida (K. Koenig), des huiles de palme et d’olive chez le rat, Afrique science, (2014) 10(1): 226-235.
[7]  Howélé O., Bobelé N., Théodor D., et Séraphin K.-C., Nutritional composition studies of sun dried Blighia sapida (k. koenig) aril from Côte d’Ivoire, Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2010) 32(6) : 1989-1994.
[8]  Ademola G. and Adenike O., Blighia sapida; the plant and its hypoglycins an overview, Jornal of Scientific Research, (2009) 119(2): 11-22.
[9]  Rojas D. K., Impact of condensed tannins from tropical forages on Haemonchus contortus burdens in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Pelibuey lambs, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., (2006) 128 (34): 218-228.
[10]  Munoz J. M. and Sampaolesi R., Simple method for the determination of proteins in aqueous humor, Doc. Ophthalmol., (1957) 11(1): 1568-1575.
[11]  French Association for Standardization, Fats, oil seeds, derived products. Paris-La Défense: (1988) AFNOR.
[12]  Bouafou K., Konan B., Kouame K., and Kati-Coulibally S., Banana products and by-products in animal feed, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., (2012) 6(4): 36-50.
[13]  Antwi S., Martey O. N. K., Donkor K., and Nii-Ayitey L. K., Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) in Rats and Mice, J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., (2009) 4(3): 117-125.
[14]  Saidu A., Phytochemical Screening and Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous Blighia sapida Root Bark Extract on Normoglycemic Albino Rats, Br. J. Pharm. Res., (2012) 2(2): 89-97.
[15]  Temegne N.C., Ngome F. A. and Fotso A. K., Influence of soil chemistry on nutrient content and yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae), in two agro-ecological zones of the Cameroon, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., (2016) 9(6): 2776-2786.
[16]  Atyqy M. E., (2018): Eau dans les aliments; In Sciences et Techniques des Aliments. Available on line: Access on 09/11/2020.
[17]  Akintayo E. T., Adebayo E. A., Arogundade L. A., Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of akee (Bilphia sapida) pulp and seed flours, Food Chem., (2002) 77(3): 333-336.
[18]  Ningsanond S. and Ooraikul B., Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Dry and Wet Milling Products of Red Cowpeas, Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J., (1989). 22(2): 147-155.
[19]  Greenfield H. and Southgate D. A. T., Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación, Data on the composition of foods: production, management and use. Rome (2007): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (FAO).
[20]  Fasano C., Hiol A., Miolan J. P., and Niel J. P., Sphingolipids: vectors of pathogens and cause of genetic diseases, Medicine/Sciences, (2006) 22(4): 411-415.
[21]  T. M. Freeman, O. W. Gregg, and American Association of Cereal Chemists, Eds, Sodium intake-dietary concerns. St. Paul, Minn: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1982.
[22]  Gourgoulianis K. I., Chatziparasidis G., Chatziefthimiou A., and Molyvdas P. A., Magnesium as a Relaxing Factor of Airway Smooth Muscles, J. Aerosol Med., (2001) 14(3): 301-307.
[23]  Weijer J., Interaction of Gibberellic Acid and Indoleacetic Acid in Impatiens, Science, (1959) 129(3353): 896-897.
[24]  Guinotte F., Nys Y., and Monredon F., The Effects of Particle Size and Origin of Calcium Carbonate on Performance and Ossification Characteristics in Broiler Chicks, Poult. Sci., (1991) 70(9): 1908-1920.
[25]  Ando K., Matsui H., Fujita M., and Fujita T., Protective Effect of Dietary Potassium against Cardiovascular Damage in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension: Possible Role of its Antioxidant Action, Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol., (2010) 8(1): 59-63.
[26]  Demigné C., Sabboh H., Rémésy C., and Meneton P., Protective Effects of High Dietary Potassium: Nutritional and Metabolic Aspects, J. Nutr., (2004) 134(11): 2903-2906.
[27]  Lucey J. A. and Fox P. F., Importance of Calcium and Phosphate in Cheese Manufacture: A Review, J. Dairy Sci., (1993) 76(6): 1714-1724.
[28]  Tassigny M., Action of calcium on the growth of axenic Desmidiées: With 9 figures and 3 tables in the text, SIL Commun. 1953-1996, (1971) 19(1): 292-313.
[29]  OMS/FAO. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Geneva (Second edition), (2004) 341p.
[30]  Trumbo P., Schlicker S., Yates A. A., Poos M. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohdrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, (2002) 102(11): 1621-1650.
[31]  AFSSA. Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments, relatif à l’évaluation des teneurs en vitamines et minéraux des denrées enrichies et des compléments alimentaires: synthèse. Maisons-Alfort, (2009) 38p.