Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(9), 477-483
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-9-4
Open AccessArticle

Changes in RAPD-DNA Markers and Plasma Protein Profile in Progesterone-Treated Chicken

Tito Naeem Habib1, Gamal El-Din S. Amin1, Ahmed Ahmed Hussien1, Mohammed Salama2, Mohamed Omar Ahmed1 and Motamed Elasyed Mahmoud3,

1Molecular Genetics Lab, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 11566, Egypt

3Department of Animal Behavior and Husbandry (Genetics, Breeding and Production), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, 82524, Egypt

Pub. Date: September 22, 2021

Cite this paper:
Tito Naeem Habib, Gamal El-Din S. Amin, Ahmed Ahmed Hussien, Mohammed Salama, Mohamed Omar Ahmed and Motamed Elasyed Mahmoud. Changes in RAPD-DNA Markers and Plasma Protein Profile in Progesterone-Treated Chicken. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 9(9):477-483. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-9-9-4


The abuse of contraceptive pills as growth promoters in the poultry industry has serious health concerns. Consumption of hormonal residues in animal products results in reproductive disorders and an increased risk of cancers in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of treatment with progesterone hormone on the plasma proteins and RAPD-DNA markers of broiler chickens. One hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks were equally divided into 5 groups (n = 20). Four groups were treated daily with progesterone hormone either subcutaneously or orally (1.0 mg, 1.5mg/kg). The 5th group was control non-treated chicken. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and RAPD assays in conjunction with productive parameters such as growth rate were assessed. SDS-PAGE and RAPD-DNA patterns were significantly affected by progesterone hormone treatment. Either or oral or subcutaneous progesterone hormone treatments increased the body weight of chicks compared to control. Treatment with progesterone hormone induces effects on both DNA and plasma proteins in broiler chickens. Changes at the genomic DNA level may be due to specific modifications in RAPD patterns or arise as a consequence of hot spot DNA changes and/or mutations.

Xeno-progesterone plasma protein profile RAPD-DNA markers growth rate broiler chicken

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 4


[1]  Jeong, S. H., Kang, D., Lim, M. W., Kang, C. S., and Sung, H. J. Risk assessment of growth hormones and antimicrobial residues in meat. Toxicological research, 26(4), 301-313, 2010.
[2]  Adeel, M., Song, X., Wang, Y., Francis, D., and Yang, Y. Environmental impact of estrogens on human, animal and plant life: A critical review. Environ Int., 99: 107-119, 2017.
[3]  Hussein, A.M., Badawoud, M.H., and Noaman, M.H. The effects of diethylstilbestrol administration on rat kidney. Ultrastructural study. Saudi Med J., 34(11): 1114-24, 2013.
[4]  Stephany, R. W. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, (195), 355-367, 2010.
[5]  World Health Organization. “Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.” World Health Organization technical report series, 997: 1-110, 2016.
[6]  Klinge, C.M. Part III: Steroid Hormone Receptors and Signal Transduction Processes. In: Belfiore A., LeRoith D. (eds) Principles of Endocrinology and Hormone Action. Endocrinology, 9-1, 2016.
[7]  Di Zazzo, E., Galasso, G., Giovannelli, P., Di Donato, M., Di Santi, A., Cernera, G., Rossi, V., Abbondanza, C., Moncharmont, B., Sinisi, A. A., Castoria, G., and Migliaccio, A. Prostate cancer stem cells: the role of androgen and estrogen receptors. Oncotarget, 7(1), 193-208, 2016.
[8]  Del Pup, L., Mantovani, A., Cavaliere, C., Facchini, G., Luce, A., Sperlongano, P., Caraglia, M., and Berretta, M. Carcinogenetic mechanisms of endocrine disruptors in female cancers (Review). Oncol Rep.; 36(2): 603-12. Aug, 2016.
[9]  Meeker, J.D. Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors and child development. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012, 166(10):952-8. PMID: 23367522.
[10]  Collier RJ, Hernandez LL, Laporta J, Jim Lauderdale J, et al. Impacts on Human Health and Safety of Naturally Occurring and Supplemental Hormones in Food Animals. CAST, Ames, Iowa1-21, 2020.
[11]  National Toxicology Program. Diethylstilbestrol: Report on carcinogens: carcinogen profiles, 12, 159-161, 2011.
[12]  Yang, R., Wang, Y. M., Zhang, L., Zhao, Z. M., Zhao, J., and Peng, S. Q. (2016). Prepubertal exposure to an oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone induces central precocious puberty in immature female rats through the mechanism of premature activation of hypothalamic kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 437, 62-74.
[13]  Gandhi, R., and Snedeker S.M. Consumer Concerns About Hormones in Food. Fact Sheat#37. 2000.
[14]  Belachew, B. Hirpessa, Beyza H. Ulusoy, and Canan Hecer. Hormones and Hormonal Anabolics: Residues in Animal Source Food, Potential Public Health Impacts, and Methods of Analysis”, Journal of Food Quality, 1-12, 2020.
[15]  NRC (National Research Council). Metabolic Modifiers, Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Food-Producing Animals. National Academic Press. in Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Washington, D. C., 1994, 55-57.
[16]  Perry, J.N., Jasim, A., Hojat, A., and Yong, W.H. Procurement, Storage, and Use of Blood in Biobanks. Methods Mol Biol. 1897: 89-97, 2019.
[17]  Kavoosi, G., and Ardestani, S.K. Gel electrophoresis of protein- From Basic Science to Practical Approach. 69-89, 2012.
[18]  Xu, R., Ye, P., Luo, L., Wu, H., Dong, J., and Deng, X. A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood. Mol Biotechnol. 46(3): 258-64, 2010.
[19]  Fu, Y., Ling, Z., Arabnia, H., and Deng, Y. Current trend and development in bioinformatics research. BMC bioinformatics, 21(Suppl 9), 538, 2020.
[20]  Nei, M., and Li, W.S. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in term of restriction endonuclease. Proc Nat Acad Sci, 76: 5269-5273, 1979.
[21]  Lynch, M. The similarity index and DNA fingerprinting. Mol Biol Evol. 7(5):478-84, 1990.
[22]  Gritsuk, A.I. Belkovye fraktsii plazmy krovi u krys pri gipokinezii razlichnoĭ prodolzhitelńosti [Blood plasma protein fractions in rats during hypokinesia of various durations]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 27(1): 59-64, 1993.
[23]  Bergeron, C. Effets sur l'endomètre des oestrogènes et des antioestrogènes [Effect of estrogens and antiestrogens on the endometrium]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2002, 30(12):933-7. French.
[24]  Erturk, F. A., Ay, H., Nardemir, G., and Agar, G. Molecular determination of genotoxic effects of cobalt and nickel on maize (Zea mays L.) by RAPD and protein analyses. Toxicology and industrial health, 29(7), 662-671, 2013.
[25]  Atienzar, F.A., Evenden AJ, Jha AN, and Depledge MH. Use of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay for the detection of DNA damage and mutations: possible implications of confounding factors. Biomarkers. 7(1): 94-101, 2002.
[26]  Atienzar, F.A., and A. N. Jha. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to determine DNA alterations, repair and transgenerational effects in B (a)P exposed Daphnia magna. Mutation research, 552: 125-40, 2004.
[27]  Zhou, L., Li, J., Lin, X., and Al-Rasheid, K. A. Use of RAPD to detect DNA damage induced by nitrofurazone in marine ciliate, Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 103(3-4), 225-232, 2011.
[28]  El-Sawi, N.M., and Habib, T.N., The Genetic Susceptibility of Male Mice exposed to Verrucarin J Toxin. II. J Egypt Ger Soc Zool, 45: 307-326, 2004.
[29]  Babu, K. N., Sheeja, T. E., Minoo, D., Rajesh, M. K., Samsudeen, K., Suraby, E. J., & Kumar, I. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Derived Techniques. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2222, 219-247, 2021.
[30]  Nan, P., Xia, X. H., Du, Q. Y., Chen, J. J., Wu, X. H., and Chang, Z. J. Genotoxic effects of 8-hydroxylquinoline in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) assessed by the micronucleus test, comet assay and RAPD analysis. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 35(3), 434-443, 2013.
[31]  Welsh J, Ralph D, and McClelland M. DNA and RNA fingerprinting using arbitrary primed PCR. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H-, Sninsky, J. (Eds.), PCR Strategies. Acad. Press, San Diego, 1995, 249-276.
[32]  Pacchierotti, F., Masumura, K., Eastmond, D. A., Elhajouji, A., Froetschl, R., Kirsch-Volders, M., Lynch, A., Schuler, M., Tweats, D., and Marchetti, F. Chemically induced aneuploidy in germ cells. Part II of the report of the 2017 IWGT workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases. Mutation research, 848, 403023, 2019.
[33]  Liehr, J.G., Avitts, T.A., Randerath, E., Randerath, and K. Estrogen-induced endogenous DNA adduction: possible mechanism of hormonal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1986 83(14): 5301-5.
[34]  Oh, H., Arem, H., Matthews, C. E., Wentzensen, N., Reding, K. W., Brinton, L. A., Anderson, G. L., Coburn, S. B., Cauley, J. A., Chen, C., Goodman, D., Pfeiffer, R. M., Falk, R. T., Xu, X., and Trabert, B. Sitting, physical activity, and serum oestrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. British journal of cancer, 117(7), 1070-1078, 2017.
[35]  Cavalieri, E.L., and Rogan, E.G. Unbalanced metabolism of endogenous estrogens in the etiology and prevention of human cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011, 125(3-5):169-80.
[36]  Braekevelt, E., Lau, B.P., Tague, B., Popovic, S., and Tittlemier S.A. Effect of cooking on concentrations of β-estradiol and metabolites in model matrices and beef. J Agric Food Chem. 59(3): 915-20, 2011.
[37]  Nachman, K.E., and Smith, T.J. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2(1): 1-14, 2015.