Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(6), 274-280
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-6-1
Open AccessArticle

Education for Improving Children’s Behaviors during Eating in a Japanese Nursery School

Rie Horiuchi1, 2, , Yuko Maki3, Miki Tokunaga4, Yuko Yamamoto5, Keiichi Tsukinoki6, Ram B. Singh7, Douglas W. Wilson8, 9, Harpal S. Buttar10 and Toru Takahashi11

1Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Nutrition, Mukogawa Women’s University, 6-46 Ikebiraki-cho, Nishinomiya city, Hyogo prefecture, 663-8558 Japan.

2Research Institute for Nutrition Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University6-46 Ikebiraki-cho, Nishinomiya city, Hyogo prefecture, 663-8558 Japan

3Department of Life and Culture Studies, Sonoda Women‘s University, Minamitsukaguchi-cho, Amagasaki-shi, Hyogo prefecture, 661-8520 Japan.

4Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Kanazawa Gakuin University, 10 Sue, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa prefecture, 920-1392 Japan

5Department of Junior College, Kanagawa Dental University, School of Dental Hygiene, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka City, Kanagawa prefecture, 238-8580 Japan

6Department of Oral Science, Division of Environmental Pathology, Kanagawa Dental University, Graduate School of Dentistry, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka city, Kanagawa prefecture, 238-8580 Japan

7Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Civil Lines, Moradabad (UP), 244001 India

8School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University, Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE UK

9Centre for Ageing and Dementia Research, Haldane Building, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP UK

100Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd. Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8M5 Canada

111Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Kanazawa Gakuin University, 10 Sue, Kanazawa city, Ishikawa prefecture, 920-1392 Japan

Pub. Date: June 08, 2021

Cite this paper:
Rie Horiuchi, Yuko Maki, Miki Tokunaga, Yuko Yamamoto, Keiichi Tsukinoki, Ram B. Singh, Douglas W. Wilson, Harpal S. Buttar and Toru Takahashi. Education for Improving Children’s Behaviors during Eating in a Japanese Nursery School. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 9(6):274-280. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-9-6-1


Nursery school is an important stage for improving children’s eating behaviors because eating behaviors are established in early childhood. Thus, this study aimed to establish an adequate method for educating children regarding such behaviors during early stages of development. To this end, we elucidated the causal effects of children’s behaviors during eating at a nursery school. Cross-sectional data were used. Behaviors during eating lunch, quantity of leftovers from meals, and children’s preferences for school lunch were measured. Causal effects between the measured variables were analyzed using the Bayesian network analysis. The causes leading to time spent talking were turning sideways, playing, and standing up. Turning sideways, playing, and standing up depended positively on the time spent of talking (p=0.01). The times spent of talking affected the time spent of holding foods in one’s mouth. The time spent of talking was positively depended by time spent of holding foods in one’s mouth (p=0.02). Decreasing the time spent turning sideways, playing, and standing up might decrease talking, which in turn may decrease the time spent holding food in one’s mouth. Instructing children not to turn sideways, play, or stand up would be an effective way to educate them on desirable behaviors during school lunch.

education school lunch nursery school observation of behaviors Bayesian network

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