Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(4), 187-192
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Physicochemical, Sensory, and Cooking Qualities of Gluten-free Pasta Enriched with Indonesian Edible Red Seaweed (Kappaphycus Alvarezii)

Enny Sholichah1, Rima Kumalasari1, , Novita Indrianti1, Lia Ratnawati1, Ari Restuti2 and Aris Munandar2

1Research Center for Appropriate Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Subang, Indonesia

2Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang, Indonesia

Pub. Date: April 06, 2021

Cite this paper:
Enny Sholichah, Rima Kumalasari, Novita Indrianti, Lia Ratnawati, Ari Restuti and Aris Munandar. Physicochemical, Sensory, and Cooking Qualities of Gluten-free Pasta Enriched with Indonesian Edible Red Seaweed (Kappaphycus Alvarezii). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 9(4):187-192. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-9-4-3


Nowadays, gluten-free (GF) products have become a trend as a healthy food. Making GF pasta has its challenges because there is no gluten content in GF flour. Application of red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) as hydrocolloid to enhance the quality of GF pasta has been conducted. The effects of the addition of K. alvarezii puree (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of the total flour) on chemical characteristics (moisture content, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, and calcium content), physical characteristics (elongation, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, and color), cooking properties (cooking time and cooking loss) and sensory evaluation (color, taste, aroma, firmness and overall acceptability) were investigated. K. alvarezii was able to increase viscous-elasticity, calcium, dietary fiber, cooking properties, and panelists' preference of GF pasta. K. alvarezii can be used as an additive to improve physicochemical properties, cooking quality, and acceptance of GF pasta.

gluten-free pasta Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed puree hydrocolloid

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  IPO International Pasta Organization, “Pasta, world consumption boom since the lockdown started 1 consumer out of 4 ate more, 25% export increase in 6 months. Available: [Accessed January 8, 2021].
[2]  Marti, A. and M.A Pagani, “What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta?” Trends in Food Science & Technology 31 (1). 63-71. May.2013.
[3]  Murray, J.A. Watson, T. Clearman, B. Mitros, F, “Effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac disease”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79. 669-673. 2004.
[4]  Mariotti, M. Iametti, S. Cappa, C. Rasmussen, P. Lucisano, M, “Characterisation of gluten-free pasta through conventional and innovative methods: Evaluation of the uncooked products” Journal of Cereal Science 53 (2). 319-327. May.2011.
[5]  Padalino, L. Conte, A. Nobile, M.A.D, “Overview on the general approaches to improve gluten-free pasta and bread”. Foods 5 (87). 1-18. Dec. 2016.
[6]  Schoenlechner, R. Drausinger, J. Ottenschlaeger, V. Jurackova, K. Berghofer, E, “Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat”. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 65 (4). 339-349. Oct. 2010.
[7]  Sholichah, E. Indrianti, N. Yulianti, L.E. Sarifudin, A. and Kiatponglarp, W, “Impact of tempeh flour supplementation on the properties of non-gluten pasta product”. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 20 (7). 16905-16921. Dec. 2020.
[8]  Yulianti, L.E. Sholichah, E. Indrianti, N, “Addition of tempeh flour as a protein source in mixed flour (mocaf, rice, and corn) for pasta product”. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 251. 1-6. 2019.
[9]  Ratnawati, L. and Afifah, N, “The effects of using guar gum, CMC and carrageenan on the quality of noodles made from blend of mocaf, rice flour and corn flour”. Jurnal Pangan 27 (1). 43-54. Oct. 2018.
[10]  Shahsavani, L. Mostaghim, T, “The effect of seaweed powder on physicochemical properties of yellow alkaline noodles”. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology 7 (2). 27-34. 2017.
[11]  Raman, M. and Doble, M, “Physicochemical and structural characterisation of marine algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and the ability of its dietary fibres to bind mutagenic amines”. Journal of Applied Phycology 26. 2183-2191. Feb. 2014.
[12]  Afifah, N. and Ratnawati, L, “Quality assessment of dry noodles made from blend of mocaf flour, rice flour and corn flour”. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 10. 1-9. 2017.
[13]  AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis 15th Edition. Washington: Association of Official Analysis Chemists (1990).
[14]  National Standarization Agency (BSN). SNI 8217-2015: Dried Noodles.
[15]  Dewi, E.C, “Quality evaluation of dried noodle with seaweeds puree subsitution”. Journal of Coastal Development, 14 (2). 151-158. Feb. 2011.
[16]  Kumar, K.S. Ganesan, K. and Rao, P.V.S, “Seasonal variation in nutritional composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty-an edible seaweed”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52 (5). 2751-2760. May. 2015.
[17]  Keyimu, X.G, “The effects of using seaweed on the quality of asian noodles”. Journal of Food Processing and Technology 4 (3). 1-4. 2013.
[18]  Adharini, R.A. Setyawan, A.R. Suadi, Jayanti, A.D, “Comparison of nutritional composition in red and green strains of Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivated in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia”. E3S Web of Conferences 147, 03029. Jan. 2020.
[19]  Fradinho, P. Raymundo, A. Sousa, I. Dominguez, H. Torres, M.D, “Edible brown seaweed in gluten-free pasta:Technological and nutritional evaluation”. Foods 8. 1-17. 2020.
[20]  Astuti, R.D. David, W. Ardiansyah, “Sensory evaluation of noodles substituted by sweet potato flour and rice bran”. Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci. (8). 144-154. 2020.
[21]  Mohammad, S.M. Razali, S.F.M. Rozaiman, N.H.N.M. Laizani, A.N. Zawawi, N, “Application of seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) in Malaysian food products”. International Food Research Journal 26 (6). 1677-1687. Dec. 2019.
[22]  Halimah, S.N. Suryani, R.A. Wijayanti, S.W. Pangestu, R.A. Deni, G.D. Romadhon, “Fortification seaweed noodles [Euchema cottonii (Weber-van Bosse, 1913)] with nano-calcium from Bone Catfish [Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)]”, Aquatic Procedia. 221-225. Aug. 2016.
[23]  Agusman, Murdinah, and Wahyuni, T, “The nutritional quality and preference of wheat noodles incorporated with Caulerpa sp. Seaweed”. International Food Research Journal 27 (3). 445-453. June. 2020.
[24]  Roohinejad, S. Koubaa, M. Barba, F.J. Saljoughian, S. Amid, M. and Greiner, R, “Application of seaweeds to develop new food products with enhanced shelf-life, quality and health-related beneficial properties”. Food Research International 99. 1066-1083. 2017.
[25]  Belitz, H.D. Grosch, W. Schieberle, P, Food chemistry. Springer, Berlin, 2009.
[26]  Billina, A. Waluyo, S, “Study of the physical properties of wet noodles with addition of sea weed”. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Lampung 4 (2). 109-116. Jan. 2014.
[27]  Malcolmsom, L. Matsuo, R, “Effects of cooking water composition on stickiness and cooking loss of spaghetti”. Cereal Chemistry 70. 272-275. 1993.
[28]  Ahmed, I. Qazi, I.M. Jamal, S, “Quality evaluation of noodles prepared from blending of broken rice and wheat flour”. Starch/Staerke 67 (11). 905-912. May. 2015.
[29]  Fu, B.X. “Asian noodles: History, classification, raw materials, and processing”. Food Research International 41 (9). 888-902. Nov. 2008.
[30]  Jaziri, A.A. Sari, D.S. Yahya, Prihanto, A.A. and Firdaus, M, “Fortification of Eucheuma cottonii flour on dried noodle. Indonesian Jurnal of Halal 1 (2). 266-347. 2018.
[31]  Santoso, J. Lestari, O.A. Anugrahati, N.A, “Peningkatan kandungan serat makanan dan iodium pada mie kering melalui subtitusi tepung terigu dengan tepung rumput laut”. Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Pangan 4 (2). 131-145. 2006.
[32]  Widyaningtyas, M. and Susanto, W.H, “Effect of type and concentration of hydrocolloids (carboxy methyl celullose, xanthan gum, and carrageenan) on characteristic dried noodle based sweet potato variety yellow ase paste”. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 3 (2). 417-423. Apr. 2015.