Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021, 9(3), 170-176
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-9-3-10
Open AccessArticle

Characterizing Sections of Elk Velvet Antler by pH and Mineral, Fatty Acid, and Amino Acid Composition

Dong-Kyo Kim1, Sang-Hoon Lee1, Eun-Do Lee1, Hye-Jin Kim2, Jinwook Lee1, Sung-Soo Lee1, Aera Jang2, and Kwan-Woo Kim1,

1Animal Genetic Resources Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Hamyang 50000, Korea

2Department of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea

Pub. Date: March 25, 2021

Cite this paper:
Dong-Kyo Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Eun-Do Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Jinwook Lee, Sung-Soo Lee, Aera Jang and Kwan-Woo Kim. Characterizing Sections of Elk Velvet Antler by pH and Mineral, Fatty Acid, and Amino Acid Composition. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021; 9(3):170-176. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-9-3-10

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the composition change in different sections of elk velvet antler at 90 days. The following parameters were analyzed: moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, pH, minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Pb), amino acids, and fatty acids. Dry matter, crude fiber, and crude ash contents were higher in the base of the antlers and lower in the tip. In contrast, crude protein and crude fat contents were highest in the tip. Moisture content was high in the upper and medium sections of the antlers, but the difference was not significant. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) contents were high in the base of the antlers, potassium (K) content was high in the tip of the antlers, and zinc (Zn) content showed no difference between antler sections. Saturated fatty acid content was highest in the base of the antlers, whereas unsaturated fatty acid content was highest in the tip. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid content was high in the tip of the antler, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acid content was high in the upper section of the antler. Essential amino acid content was highest in the upper section of the antler, whereas non-essential amino acid content was lowest in the base. Crude protein, crude fat, K, and unsaturated fatty acid content tended to be high in the tip of the antler, and essential amino acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents tended to be high in the upper section of the antler. The tip of the antler had the highest nutrient content. In order to prevent cardiovascular disease, consumption of a certain amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids from the upper section of the antler could be beneficial in terms of pharmacological efficacy.

Keywords:
deer velvet antler section fatty acid amino acid

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Hassanin, A., Delsuc, F., Ropiquet, A., Hammer, C., van Vuuren, B.J., Matthee, C., Ruiz-Garcia, M., Catzeflis, F., Areskoug, V., Nguyen, T.T. and Couloux, A, “Pattern and timing of diversification of cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as revealed by a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial genomes”, Competes Rendus Biologies, 335, 32-50, January 2012.
 
[2]  Zhang, W.Q. and Zhang, M.H, “Phylogeny and evolution of cervidae based on complete mitochondrial genomes”, Genetic and Molecular Research, 11 (1), 628-635, March 2012.
 
[3]  Rural Development Administration, “Breeding deer”, 2014 edition, RDA, Korea, December 2014.
 
[4]  Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, “Other livestock statistics”, 2018, MAFRA, Korea.
 
[5]  McShea, W.J, “Echology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249 (2012), 45-56, January 2012.
 
[6]  Mennecart, B., DeMiguel, D., Bibi, F., Rossner, G.E., Metais, G., Neenan, J.M., Wang, S., Schulz, G., Muller, B. and Costeur, L, “Bony labyrinth morphology clarifies the origin and evolution of deer”, Scientific Reports, 7 (13176), October 2017.
 
[7]  Vargas-Ramella, M., Munekata, P.E.S., Gagaoua, M., Franco, D., Campagnol, P.C.B., Pateiro, M., da Silva Barretto, A.C., Dominguez, R. and Lorenzo, J.M, “Inclusion of healthy oils for improving the nutritional characteristics of dry fermented deer sausage”, Foods, 9 (1487), October 2020.
 
[8]  Kim, K.W., Kim, H.J., Kim, H.J., Lee, S.S., Lee, E.D., Kim, D.K., Lee, S.H., Jang, A., and Lee, J, “Effect of feeding regime on meat quality of elk deer loin during aging”, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 8 (7), 355-361, August 2020.
 
[9]  Sui, Z., Zhang, L., Huo, Y. and Zhang, Y, “Bioactive components of velvet antlers and their pharmacological properties”, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 87, 229-240, January 2014.
 
[10]  Tseng, S.H., Sung, C.H., Chen, L.G., Lai, Y.J., Chang, W.S., Sung, H.C. and Wang, C.C, “Comparison of chemical compositions and osteoprotective effects of different sections of velvet antler”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151 (1), 352-360, January 2014.
 
[11]  Li, C., Mackintosh, C.G., Martin, S.K. and Clark, D.E, “Identification of key tissue type for antler regeneration through pedicle periosteum deletion”, Cell and Tissue Research, 328, 65-75, November 2007.
 
[12]  Li, C, “Deer antler generation: a stem cell-based epimorphic process”, Birth Defects Research, Part C, 96 (1), 51-62, March 2012.
 
[13]  Lee, K.A. and Chung, H.Y, “Biological activities of Korean traditional prescription, Nogyongdaebotang”, Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 33 (1), 28-33, January 2004.
 
[14]  Cho, C.H., Lee, B.H., Kim, H.Y., Kim, Y.C. and Kim, D.O, “Effect of feedstuffs on mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, and protection of neuronal PC-12 cells of deer antlers”, Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering Journal, 27, 243-250, August 2012.
 
[15]  Li, Y.J., Kim, T.H., Kwak, H.B., Lee, Z.H., Lee, S.Y. and Jhon, G.J, “Chloroform extract of deer antler inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113 (2), 191-198, September 2007.
 
[16]  Zhang, Z., Liu, X., Duan, L., Li, X., Zhang, Y. and Zhou, Q, “The effects of velvet antler polypeptides on the phenotype and related biological indicators of osteoarthritic rabbit chondrocytes”, Acta Biochimica Polonica, 58 (3), 297-302, July 2011.
 
[17]  Son, L.W., Shin, M.G. and Lee, H.I, “Effects of deer antler on the phagocytic activity of reticuloendothelial system in starved mice”, Korean Oriental Medical Society, 7 (2), 174-183, October 1986.
 
[18]  Mikler, J.R., Theoret, C.L. and Haigh, J.C, “Effects of topical elk velvet antler on cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10 (5), 835-840, November 2004.
 
[19]  Park., P.J., Jeon, Y.J., Moon, S.H. and Jeon. B.T, “Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Velvet Antler”, Food Industry and Nutrition, 10 (2), 50-59, August 2005.
 
[20]  Shin, K.H, “Pharmaceutical activation and active composition of velvet antler”, Korean Deer Journal, 8 (2), 97-101, February 2003.
 
[21]  Lee, B.Y., Lee, O.H. and Choi, H.S, “Analysis of food components of Korean deer antler parts”, Korean Society of Food Science and Technology, 35 (1), 52-56, February 2003.
 
[22]  Jeon, B.T., Moon, S.H., Lee, S.R. and Kim, M.H, “Changes of amino acid, fatty acid, and lipid composition by growth period in velvet antler”, Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 30 (6), 989-996, December 2010.
 
[23]  Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Antoniello, N., Boschi, F., Iadarola, P., Pasini, E., Aquilani, R. and Dioguard, F.S, “Effect of essential amino acid supplementation on quality of life, amino acid profile and strength in institutionalized elderly patients”, Clinical Nutrition, 30 (5), 571-577, October 2011
 
[24]  Distel, R.J., Robinson, G.S. and Spiegelman, B.M, “Fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267 (9), 5937-5941 March 1992.
 
[25]  Hulbert, A.J, “Life, death, and membrane bilayers”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 2303-2311, July 2003.
 
[26]  Jakobsen, M.U., O’Reilly, E.J., Heitmann, B.L., Pereira, M.A., Balter, K., Fraser, G.E., Goldbourt, U., Hallmans, G., Knekt, P., Liu, S., Pietinen, P., Spiegelman, D., Stevens, J., Virtamo, J., Willett, W.C. and Ascherio, A, “Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89 (5), 1425-2432, February 2009.
 
[27]  AOAC. 1995. “Official Methods of Analysis. 6th ed.” Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington
 
[28]  Landete-Castillejos, T., Garcia, A. and Gallego, L, “Body weight, early growth and antler size influence antler bone mineral composition of Iberian Red Deer (Cervus elphus hispanicus)”, Bone, 40 (1), 230-235, January 2007.
 
[29]  Jeon, B.T., Kim, M.H., Lee, S.M. and Moon, S.H, “Effect of dietary protein level on dry matter intake, and production and chemical composition of velvet antler in spotted deer fed forest by-product silage”, Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 19 (12), 1737-1741, December 2006.
 
[30]  Kim, M.H, “A study on the blood constituents and velvet antler composition in deer”, Ph.D. Thesis Konkuk Uni., Seoul. Korea, February 2002.
 
[31]  Sunwoo, H.H., Nskano, T., Hudson, R.J. and Sim, J.S, “Chemical composition of antlers from wapiti (Cervus elaphus)”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, 2846-2849, November 1995.
 
[32]  Jeon, B.T., Cheong, S.H., Kim, D.H., Park, J.H., Park, P.J., Sung, S.H., Thomas, D.G., Kim, D.H. and Moon, S.H, “Effect of antler development stage on the chemical composition of velvet antler in Elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis)”, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 24 (9), 1303-1313, September 2011.
 
[33]  Banks, W.J. and Newbery, J.W, “Antlers development as unique modification of mammalian endochondral ossification. In: Antler development in Cervidae. Brown, R.D.(ed)”, p.480, Caesar Kleberg Research Institute, Kingsville, 279-306. 1983.
 
[34]  Bronner, F, “Calcium and osteoporosis”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60 (6), 831-836, December 1994.
 
[35]  Kerschan-Schindl, K, “Prevention and rehabilitation of osteoporosis”, Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 166, 22-27, January 2016
 
[36]  Ha, H. and Yoon, S.H, “Analytical studies of constituents of antlers”, Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 25 (2), 279-282, April 1996.
 
[37]  Lee, S.R., Jeon, B.T., Kim, S.J., Kim, M.H., Lee, S.M. and Moon, S.H, “Effects of antler development stage on fatty acid, vitamin and GAGs contents of velvet antler in spotted Deer(Cervus nippon)”, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 20 (10), 1546-1550, October 2007.
 
[38]  Jeon, B.T., Kim, S.J., Lee, S.M., Park, P.J., Sung, S.H., Kim, J.M. and Moon, S.H, “Effect of antler growth period on the chemical composition of velvet antler in sika deer (Cervus Nippon)”, Mammalian Biology, 74 (5), 374-380, September 2009.
 
[39]  Shin, K.H., Lim, S.S., Chung, H.S. and Baek, I.B, “Analysis of the composition of biochemical components in unossified antlers”, The Korean Society of Pharmacognosy, 30 (3), 314-319, September 1999.
 
[40]  Li, P. and Wu, G, “Role of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxylproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth”, Amino Acids, 50 (1), 29-38, September 2017.
 
[41]  Zhu, W., Wang, H., Zhang, W., Xu, N., Xu, J., Li, Y., Liu, W. and Lv, S, “Protective effects and plausible mechanisms of antler-velvet polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells”, Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 95 (5), 610-619, January 2017.
 
[42]  Wu, F., Li, H., Jin, L., Li, X., Ma, Y., You, J., Li, S. and Xu, Y, “Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: A review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 145 (2) 403-415, January 2013.