Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(12), 730-738
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-12-6
Open AccessArticle

Barley Grass (Hordeum vulgare L.) Protects against Dieldrin-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rat

Hallegue Dorsaf1, Moujahed Sabrine1, Ben Lamine Houda2, Ben Rhouma Khémais1, Sakly Mohsen1, and Tebourbi Olfa1

1Laboratory of Integrated Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta, University of Carthage, Jarzouna 7021 Bizerta, Tunisia

2Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy, Menzel Bourguiba Hospital 7050 Bizerta, Tunisia

Pub. Date: December 11, 2020

Cite this paper:
Hallegue Dorsaf, Moujahed Sabrine, Ben Lamine Houda, Ben Rhouma Khémais, Sakly Mohsen and Tebourbi Olfa. Barley Grass (Hordeum vulgare L.) Protects against Dieldrin-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rat. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(12):730-738. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-12-6


The objective in this article was to evaluate the total phenol and proanthocyanidin contents of Fresh Hordeum vulgare L. grass aqueous extract (HGAE) and to determine its antioxidant capacity, using standard phytochemical methods. It aimed also to determine the protective capacity of this extract against dieldrin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rat. The animals were separated into six groups: control (C), dieldrin (6 mg/kg i.p) (D), HGAE (10 and 20 ml/kg, orally) and D plus HGAE (HGAEII+D). The experiment lasted 10 days. Our results indicated that total phenol and proanthocyanidin contents, were higher in aqueous barley grass extract. Dieldrin-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney was indicated by marked increase in lipid peroxidation, reduction in the catalase activity and thiol group levels (-SH). Pretreatment with HGAE significantly reduces these alterations. HGAE was also found subsequently to provide a protection against dieldrin-induced hepatic and renal injury respectively by averting the hepatocyte deep necrotic lesions and improving renal tubular and glomerular architecture. It also restored serum lipid profile and liver and kidney relative weights. We concluded that aqueous extract of barley grass has the potential to ameliorate liver and kidney injury induced by dieldrin mainly through its potent antioxidant properties due to its richness in phenolic compounds.

barley dieldrin liver kidney oxidative stress

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Gladine, C., Morand, C., Rock, E. and Durand, D, “The antioxidative effect of plant extracts rich in polyphenols differs between liver and muscle tissues in rats fed n-3 PUFA rich diets”, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 139 (3-4). 257-272. Dec.2007.
[2]  Van Hung, P, “Phenolic compounds of cereals and their antioxidant capacity”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56(1). 25-35. Jul. 2014.
[3]  Lee, Y.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, S.H., Oh, J.Y., Seo, W.D., Kim, K.M., Jung, J.C, and Jung, Y.S, “Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response”, Nutrients, 8(7). 440. Jul. 2016.
[4]  Shah, J.G., Patel, B.G., Patel, S.B, and Patel, R.K, “Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats”, Indian Journal of Pharmaclogy, 44(6). 672-677. Nov-Dec. 2012.
[5]  Abulnaja, K.O, and El Rabey, H.A, “The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats”, Evid.-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13p. Mar. 2015.
[6]  Gul, S., Ahmed, S., Kifli, N., Uddin, Q.T., Tahir, N.B., Hussain, A., Jaafar, H.Z., Moga, M, and Zia-UI.-Haq, M, “Multiple pathways are responsible for anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular activities of Hordeum vulgare L”, Journal of Translational Medicine, 12(1). 316-319. Nov.2014.
[7]  Lahouar, L., El-Bok, S, and Achour, L, “Therapeutic potential of young green barley leaves in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases: An Overview”, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 43(7). 1311-1329. Oct.2015.
[8]  Ehrenbergerová, J., Vaculová, K., Paulícková, I., Brezinová Belcredi, N., Macuchová, S., Kopácek, J., Gabrovská, D., Holasová, M., Ouhrabková, J., Rysová, J., Fiedlerová, V., Winterová, R, and Horáčková, S, “Different barley cultivars as a source of green mass for improving nutrient balance in human diet”, In: A. Brandstetter (ed.) Raumberg, Austria, 2007. 91-94.
[9]  Nishiyama, T., Hagiwara, Y., Hagiwara, H, and Shibamoto, T, “Inhibitory effect of 2“-o-glycosyl isovitexin and α-tocopherol on genotoxicglyoxal formation in a lipid peroxidation system”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32(11). 1047-1051. Nov.1994.
[10]  Seo, W.D., Yuk, H.J., Curtis-Long, M.J., Jang, K.C., Lee, J.H., Han, S.I., Kang, H.W., Nam, M.H., Lee, S.J, and Lee, J.H, “Effect of the growth stage and cultivar on policosanol profiles of barley sprouts and their adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein-kinase activation”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61. 1117-1123. Jan.2013.
[11]  Shibamoto, T., Hagiwara, Y., Hagiwara, H, and Osawa, J.A,” flavonoid with strong antioxidative activity isolated from young green barley leaves”, Journal of American Chemistry Society, 547. 153-163. 1994.
[12]  Kamiyama, M, and Shibamoto, T, “Flavonoids with potent antioxidant activity found in young green barley leaves”, Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry, 60(25). 6260-6267. Jun. 2012.
[13]  Halliwel, B, “Mechanisms involved in the generation of free radicals”, Pathologie Biologie, 44(1). 6-13. Jan.1996. PMID: 8734294.
[14]  Lozano-Paniagua, D., Parron, T., Alarcon, R., Requena, M., Gil, F., Lopez-Guarnido, O., Lacasana, M, and Hernandez, A.F, “Biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood of workers exposed to non-cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides”, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 162. 121-128. Oct.2018.
[15]  Hallegue, D., Tebourbi, O., Kacem, K., Sakly, M, and Ben Rhouma, K, “Impact of dieldrin on liver morphological and biochemical parameters of rats”, Toxicology and Industrial Health, 26(3). 131-137. Feb.2010.
[16]  Hfaiedh, N., Alimi, H., Murat, J.C, and Elfeki, A, “Protective effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) upon dieldrin-induced toxicity in male rat” General Physiology and Biophysics, 31(4). 423-430. Dec.2012.
[17]  Slotkin, T.A., Skavicus, S., Card, J., Levin, E.D, and Seidler, F.J, “Diverse neurotoxicants target the differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells into neuronal and glial phenotypes”, Toxicology, 372. 42-51. Nov. 2016.
[18]  Trush, M.A, and Kensler, T.W, “An overview of the relationship between oxidative stress and chemical carcinogenesis”, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 10(3-4). 201-209. 1991.
[19]  Kothari, S., Jain, A.K., Mehta, S.C, and Tonpay, S.D, “Hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (wheat) grass juice in hypercholesterolemic rats”, Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 68(2).291-294. Mar-Apr.2011. PMID: 21485304.
[20]  Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R, and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M, “Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent”, Methods in Enzymology, 299. 152-178. 1999.
[21]  Scalbert, A., Monties, B, and Janin, G, “Tannins in wood: comparison of different estimation methods”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 37(5) 1324-1332. Sep.1989.
[22]  Friedewald, W.T, Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S, “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge”, Clinical Chemistry, 18(6). 499-502. Jun. 1972.
[23]  Buege, J.A, and Aust, S.D, “On the solubilization of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase from rat liver microsomes with crude pancreatic lipase”, Biochimicaet Biophysica Acta, 286(2). 433-436. Dec.1972.
[24]  Hu, M.L, “Measurement of protein thiol groups and glutathione in plasma”, Methods in Enzymology, 233. 380-385.1994.
[25]  Aebi, H, “Catalase in vitro” Methods in Enzymology, 105. 121-126. 1984.
[26]  Lowry, O.H., Rosenbrough, N.J, and Randall, R, “Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193(1). 265-275.Nov.1951. PMID: 14907713.
[27]  Kaur, A., Kaur, M., Kaur, P., Kaur, H., Kaur, S, and Kaur, K, “Estimation and comparison of total phenolic and total antioxidants in green tea and black tea”, Global journal of biosciences and Biotechnology, 4(1). 116-120. Jan.2015. ISSN 2278-9103.
[28]  Abdel-Hady, N.M, “Quantitative diversity of phenolic content in peels of some selecteegyptian pomegranate cultivars correlated to antioxidant and anticancer effects”, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 9. 4823-4830. Jan.2013.
[29]  Anwar, F., Qayyum, H.M.A., Hussian, A.I, and Iqbal, S, “Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil”, GrasasAceites, 61(3). 237-243. Sep.2010.
[30]  Giriwono, P.E., Hashimoto, T., Ohsaki, Y., Shirakawa, H., Hoka-zono, H, and Komai, M, “Extract of fermented barley attenuates chronic alcohol induced liver damage by increasing antioxidative activities”, Food Research International, 43(1). 118-124. Jan.2010.
[31]  Durham, J., Ogata, J., Nakajim, S., Hagiwara, Y, and Shibamoto, T, “Degradation of organophosporous pesticides in aqueous extracts of young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.)”, Jouranl of Science Food Agriculture, 79. 1311-1314. Mar.1999.
[32]  Montagut, G., Baiges, I., Valls, J., Terra, X., Del Bas, M.J., Vitrac, X, and Richard, T, “A trimer plus a dimer-gallate reproduce the bioactivity described for an extract of grape seed procyanidins” Food Chemistry, 116(1). 265-270. Sep. 2009.
[33]  Tong, L.T., Zhong, K., Liu, L., Zhou, X., Qiu, J, and Zhou, S, “Effects of dietary hull-less barley 𝛽-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters”, Food Chemistry, 169. 344-349. Feb. 2015.
[34]  Kolaja, K.L., Stevenson, D.E., Walborg, E.F, and Klaunig, J.E, “Selective dieldrin promotion of hepatic focal lesions in mice”, Carcinogenesis, 17(6). 1243-1250. Jun. 1996.
[35]  Sonne, C., Wolkers, H., Leifsson, P.S., Jenssen, B.M., Fuglei, E., Ahlstrøm, O., Dietz, R., Kirkegaard, M., Muir, D.C, and Jørgensen, E, “Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)”, Chemosphere, 71(7). 1214-1224. Apr. 2008.
[36]  Avramovic, V., Vlahovic, P., Mihailovic, D, and Stefanovic, V, “Protective effect of a bioflavonoid proanthocyanidin-BP1 in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in the rat: renal stereological study”, Renal Failure, 21(6). 627-634. Jul.1999.
[37]  Byun, A.R., Chun, H., Lee, J., Lee, S.W., Lee, H.S, and Shim, K.W, “Effects of a dietary supplement with barley sprout extract on blood cholesterol metabolism”, Evid.-Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 2015. 7p. Nov. 2015.
[38]  Gangopadhyay, N., Rai, D.K., Brunton, N.P., Gallagher, E, and Hossain, M.B, “Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain”, Food Chemistry, 210. 212-220. Nov.2016.
[39]  Subarnas, A, and Wagner, H, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the proanthocyanidin shellegueain A from Polypodium feei METT”, Phytomedicine, 7(5). 401-405. Oct. 2000.
[40]  Ojha, A, and Gupta, Y.K, “Study of commonly used organophosphate pesticides that induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats” Human and Experimental Toxicology, 36(11). 1158-1168. Dec. 2017.
[41]  Smida, A., Ncibi, S., Taleb, J., Ben Saad, A., Ncib, S, and Zourgui, L, “Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 88. 844-851. Apr.2017.
[42]  Milnerowicz, M., Bukowski, R., Jabłonowska, M., Ściskalska, M, and Milnerowicz, S, “The antioxidant profiles, lysosomal and membrane enzymes activity in patients with acute pancreatitis” Mediators of Inflammation, 10. p9. Sep. 2014.
[43]  Chen, F., Zhang, L., Zong, S., Xu, S., Li, X, and Ye, Y, “Antioxidant capacity and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides”, Evid-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. 11p. Mar.2014.