Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(11), 682-686
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-11-9
Open AccessArticle

Investigating the Synergetic Effect of Various Natural Antioxidants to Inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Model Systems

Zaher Al-bashabsheh1, , Faris Karim1 and J. Scott Smith1

1Food Science Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, U.S.A.

Pub. Date: November 27, 2020

Cite this paper:
Zaher Al-bashabsheh, Faris Karim and J. Scott Smith. Investigating the Synergetic Effect of Various Natural Antioxidants to Inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Model Systems. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(11):682-686. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-11-9

Abstract

Natural antioxidants have many biological functions and serve as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the antioxidant effects of many spices and flavonoid compounds on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) formation have been evaluated, research related to the synergistic antioxidant effect of various spices and flavonoids on PhIP formation is not well studied. In addition, at least some research shows a combination of compounds inhibits HCAs more strongly than a single antioxidant. Therefore, in this study, binary combinations of two antioxidant spices like piperine and capsaicin and two flavonoid compounds like genistin and catechin were investigated using a chemical model system that contained glucose, creatinine, and phenylalanine in 90:10 diethylene glycol/water (v/v) and heat-treated at 180°C for 1 hour to test the formation of PhIP. The PhIP contents were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All ratios of mixed spices and corresponding flavonoid compounds were as follows: 1:0.25, 1:0.5, and 1:1. The synergistic effect was assessed by identifying the reduction percentage of PhIP formation. All investigated combinations significantly (p< 0.05) reduced PhIP formation. The combination of piperine and genistin had the highest synergistic effect for all combinations. While the combination of catechin and capsaicin had the lowest synergistic effect. Knowing the antioxidants with the best synergistic effects could be useful in developing dietary antioxidants, leading to lower HCA formation.

Keywords:
synergetic effect heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[45-b] pyridine spices flavonoid compounds model system

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Knize MG, Salmon CP, Mehta SS, Felton JS. Analysis of cooked muscle meats for heterocyclic aromatic amine carcinogens. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 376(1): 129-34. 1997.
 
[2]  Abdulkarim BG, Smith JS. Heterocyclic amines in fresh and processed meat products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(11): 4680-7. 1998.
 
[3]  Alaejos MS, Afonso AM. Factors that affect the content of heterocyclic aromatic amines in foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 10(2): 52-108. 2011.
 
[4]  Gibis M. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meat products: causes, formation, occurrence, and risk assessment. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 15(2): 269-302. 2016.
 
[5]  International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum. 56. 1993.
 
[6]  Zöchling S, Murkovic M, Pfannhauser W. Effects of industrially produced flavors with pro-and antioxidative properties on the formation of the heterocyclic amine PhIP in a model system. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 53(1-3): 37-44. 2002.
 
[7]  Carthew P, DiNovi M, Setzer RW. Application of the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: Example: CAS No: 105650-23-5 PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine). Food and chemical toxicology, 48S98-S105. 2010.
 
[8]  Knize M, Dolbeare F, Carroll K, Moore II D, Felton J. Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32(7): 595-603. 1994.
 
[9]  Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3): 491s-9s. 1999.
 
[10]  Souza ELd, Stamford TLM, Lima EdO, Trajano VN, Barbosa Filho JM. Antimicrobial effectiveness of spices: an approach for use in food conservation systems. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 48(4): 549-58. 2005.
 
[11]  Srinivasan K. Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47(8): 735-48. 2007.
 
[12]  Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49(11): 1603-16. 2010.
 
[13]  Sosa V, Moliné T, Somoza R, Paciucci R, Kondoh H, LLeonart ME. Oxidative stress and cancer: an overview. Ageing research reviews, 12(1): 376-90. 2013.
 
[14]  Hadeel W, Zaid K, Al Tae’e MF. Immunological Evaluation and Acute Toxicity Study with Fertility Examination for the Effect of Aqueous Extract from Dried Fruits of Piper nigrum L. in Mice. Iraqi Journal of Science, 51(3): 465-70. 2010.
 
[15]  Han Y. Synergic anticandidal effect of epigallocatechin-O-gallate combined with amphotericin B in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and its anticandidal mechanism. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 30(9):1693-6. 2007.
 
[16]  Liu C, Zheng Y, Lu J, Zhang Z, Fan S, Wu D, Ma J. Quercetin protects rat liver against lead-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Environ.Toxicol.Pharmacol, 29(2): 158-66. 2010
 
[17]  Ghosh G, Khan D. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids (GallicAcid, Rutin, Quercetin And Mannitol) On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 4(8): 243-56. 2015.
 
[18]  Zhu Q, Zhang S, Wang M, Chen J, Zheng Z. Inhibitory effects of selected dietary flavonoids on the formation of total heterocyclic amines and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in roast beef patties and in chemical models. Food & function, 7(2): 1057-66. 2016.
 
[19]  Liang J, Tian Y, Yang F, Zhang J, Skibsted LH. Antioxidant synergism between carotenoids in membranes. Astaxanthin as a radical transfer bridge. Food Chemistry, 115(4): 1437-42. 2009.
 
[20]  Sharma BK, Perez JM, Erhan SZ. Soybean oil-based lubricants: a search for synergistic antioxidants. Energy Fuels, 21(4): 2408-14. 2007.
 
[21]  Becker EM, Ntouma G, Skibsted LH. Synergism and antagonism between quercetin and other chain-breaking antioxidants in lipid systems of increasing structural organization. Food Chemistry, 103(4): 1288-96. 2007.
 
[22]  Marinova E, Toneva A, Yanishlieva N. Synergistic antioxidant effect of α-tocopherol and myricetin on the autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil. Food Chemistry, 106(2): 628-33. 2008.
 
[23]  Hajimehdipoor H, Shahrestani R, Shekarchi M. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy, 1(3): 35-40. 2014.
 
[24]  Akhavan O, Kalaee M, Alavi Z, Ghiasi S, Esfandiar A. Increasing the antioxidant activity of green tea polyphenols in the presence of iron for the reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon, 50(8): 3015-25. 2012.
 
[25]  Hidalgo M, Sánchez-Moreno C, de Pascual-Teresa S. Flavonoid-flavonoid interaction and its effect on their antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 121(3): 691-6. 2010.
 
[26]  Jain DP, Pancholi SS, Patel R. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, 2(3): 177-83. 2011.
 
[27]  Soleimani M, Dehabadi L, Wilson LD, Tabil LG. Antioxidants Classification and Applications in Lubricants. Lubrication Tribology, Lubricants and Additives.2018.
 
[28]  Oz F, Kaya M. The inhibitory effect of red pepper on heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef Longissimus dorsi muscle. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 35(6): 806-12. 2011.
 
[29]  Zeng M, He Z, Zheng Z, Qin F, Tao G, Zhang S, Gao Y, Chen J. Effect of six Chinese spices on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(40): 9908-15. 2014.
 
[30]  Cheng K, Wu Q, Zheng ZP, Peng X, Simon JE, Chen F, Wang M. Inhibitory effect of fruit extracts on the formation of heterocyclic amines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(25): 10359-65. 2007.
 
[31]  Puangsombat K, Gadgil P, Houser TA, Hunt MC, Smith JS. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products. Meat Science, 90(3): 739-46. 2012.
 
[32]  Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas P. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med, 64(04): 353-6. 1998.
 
[33]  Nimkar M, Smith JS. Inhibition of Heterocyclic Amines in Beef Patties by Spices. (Master thesis, Kansas State University). 2013.
 
[34]  Maksimova V, Mirceski V, Gulaboski R, Koleva Gudeva L, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z.Electrochemical evaluation of the synergistic effect of the antioxidant activity of capsaicin and other bioactive compounds in Capsicum sp. extracts. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 116673-87. 2016.
 
[35]  Hsieh M, Hsieh M, Wu C, Peng W, Hsieh M, Hsieh C. The Synergistic Effect of Antioxidant Interaction between Luteolin and Chlorogenic Acid in Lonicera japonica. BioRxiv, 418319. 2018.
 
[36]  Zeng M, Li Y, He Z, Qin F, Chen J. Effect of phenolic compounds from spices consumed in China on heterocyclic amine profiles in roast beef patties by UPLC-MS/MS and multivariate analysis. Meat Science, 11650-7. 2016.