Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(11), 682-686
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-11-9
Open AccessArticle

Investigating the Synergetic Effect of Various Natural Antioxidants to Inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Model Systems

Zaher Al-bashabsheh1, , Faris Karim1 and J. Scott Smith1

1Food Science Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, U.S.A.

Pub. Date: November 27, 2020

Cite this paper:
Zaher Al-bashabsheh, Faris Karim and J. Scott Smith. Investigating the Synergetic Effect of Various Natural Antioxidants to Inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Model Systems. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(11):682-686. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-11-9


Natural antioxidants have many biological functions and serve as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the antioxidant effects of many spices and flavonoid compounds on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) formation have been evaluated, research related to the synergistic antioxidant effect of various spices and flavonoids on PhIP formation is not well studied. In addition, at least some research shows a combination of compounds inhibits HCAs more strongly than a single antioxidant. Therefore, in this study, binary combinations of two antioxidant spices like piperine and capsaicin and two flavonoid compounds like genistin and catechin were investigated using a chemical model system that contained glucose, creatinine, and phenylalanine in 90:10 diethylene glycol/water (v/v) and heat-treated at 180°C for 1 hour to test the formation of PhIP. The PhIP contents were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All ratios of mixed spices and corresponding flavonoid compounds were as follows: 1:0.25, 1:0.5, and 1:1. The synergistic effect was assessed by identifying the reduction percentage of PhIP formation. All investigated combinations significantly (p< 0.05) reduced PhIP formation. The combination of piperine and genistin had the highest synergistic effect for all combinations. While the combination of catechin and capsaicin had the lowest synergistic effect. Knowing the antioxidants with the best synergistic effects could be useful in developing dietary antioxidants, leading to lower HCA formation.

synergetic effect heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[45-b] pyridine spices flavonoid compounds model system

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