Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(10), 600-605
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-10-9
Open AccessArticle

The Nutritional Value, Energy and Nutrient Contents and Claims of Marketed Multi-grain Breads

Refat Alkurd1, , Hamed Takruri2, Marwan Muwalla1 and Tawfeeq Arafat3, 4

1Department of Nutrition, University of Petra, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Amman-Jordan

2Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, The University of Jordan, Faculty of Agriculture, Amman-Jordan

3The Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Amman-Jordan

4Department of Pharmacy, University of Petra, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Amman-Jordan

Pub. Date: November 02, 2020

Cite this paper:
Refat Alkurd, Hamed Takruri, Marwan Muwalla and Tawfeeq Arafat. The Nutritional Value, Energy and Nutrient Contents and Claims of Marketed Multi-grain Breads. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(10):600-605. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-10-9

Abstract

Cereals, mainly bread from plain wheat flour, are the staple food in Jordan. Leavened Arabic bread is the traditional consumed form. Bread is also produced in other forms by the addition of ingredients not present in the traditional Arabic bread. These forms of bread are associated with some nutrient content claims. This study aimed to compare the proximate analysis and energy of 16 multi-grain breads, in addition to white bread, and their declared nutrient content claims. The mean contributions of carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, ash, and fiber were 50.01%, 13.61%, 2.00%, 24.49%, 2.65%, and 1.33% of the weight of the bread types, respectively. The lowest ash and fiber contents were that of the white bread. The mean energy density of the bread types was 275.76 kcal/100 g. The lowest 7 energy density breads have the highest moisture content. One type of bread (B16) had the highest moisture and protein and the lowest carbohydrate and energy density. It is concluded that the addition of other grains and additives increased the fiber, ash, and protein contents of other bread types.

Keywords:
bread Jordan nutrient claim carbohydrate energy multi-grain

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Awika, J.M, Major cereal grains production and use around the world. In: Awika, J.M., Piironen, V., Bean, S. (ed.s) Advances in cereal science: Implications to food processing and health promotion. American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011, Volume 1089. pp 1-13.
 
[2]  Arranz-Otaegui, A., Carretero, L.G., Ramsey, M.N., Fuller, D.Q., and Richter, T, Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14,400 years ago in northeastern Jordan. PNAS, 115 (31). 7925-7930. July 2018.
 
[3]  Pérez, R.C., and Ruiz, V.V, “[Wheat, bread and pasta in Mediterranean diets]”. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 54(2 Suppl 1). 52-8. Jun 2004.
 
[4]  Takruri, H.R., and Alkurd, R.A, “The glycemic index of a new bread brand (Biobread)”. Jordan Medical Journal, 42 (2). 117-123. February 2008.
 
[5]  FAO and Jordan Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division, Food and Nutrition Profile, Amman-The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 2011.
 
[6]  Aider, M., Sirois-Gosselin, M., Boye, J.I, “Pea, lentil and chickpea protein application in bread making” Journal of Food Research, 1(4). 160-173. October 2012.
 
[7]  Dewettinck, K., Bockstaele, F.V., Kühne, B., de Walle, D.V., Courtens, T., and Gellynck, X, “Nutritional value of bread: influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception”, Journal of Cereal Science, 48(2). 243-257. September 2008.
 
[8]  Truswell, A.S, “Cereal grains and coronary heart disease”, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56. 1–14. February 2002.
 
[9]  Alkurd, R.A., Takruri, H.R., and Faris, M.A, “Estimated intakes of iron, zinc and selenium of Jordanians as obtained from data of Jordanian Household Expenditures and Income Survey (JHEIS) 2006”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9 (6) 600-604. 2010.
 
[10]  Pearn, J, “A loaf of bread: Price and value”, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 7(1). 8-14. 1998.
 
[11]  Abu-Hussein, F., and Takruri, H.R, “Bread consumption in a sample of young Jordanian adults: a pilot study”, Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(2). 319-329. 2016.
 
[12]  Singh, N., Jha, A., Chaudhary, A., and Upadhyay, A, “Enhancement of the functionality of bread by incorporation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus)”, Food Sci Technol, 51(9). 2038-2045. May 2012.
 
[13]  Rahaie, S., Mohammad, S., Gharibzahedi, S.M.T., Razavi, S.H., and Jafari, S.M, “Recent developments on new formulations based on nutrient-dense ingredients for the production of healthy-functional bread: a review”, J Food Sci Technol, 51(11). 2896-2906. September 2014.
 
[14]  Tiimub, B.M, “Proximate Analyses of Three Brands of Bread under Different Storage Conditions Available on the Ghanaian Market”, Food Science and Quality Management, 12: 23-29. 2013.
 
[15]  Adebayo‐Oyetoro, A.O., Ogundipe, O.O., Adeeko, K.N,Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour”, Food Sci Nutr, 4(3). 364-369. May 2016.
 
[16]  World Health Organization (WHO), A Review of Nutrition Policies. Draft Global Nutrition Policy Review, December 2010, 104.
 
[17]  Wirth, J.P., Nichols, E., Mas’d, H., Barham, R., Johnson, Q.W., and Serdula, M, “External Mill Monitoring of Wheat Flour Fortification Programs: An Approach for Program Managers Using Experiences from Jordan”, Nutrients, 5(11). 4741-4759. November 2013.
 
[18]  Ministry of Health (MOH) in Jordan, National Micronutrient Survey, Jordan 2010. Ministry of Health in Jordan, Amman-Jordan, 2011.
 
[19]  AOAC (2005) Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis, 18th Edition, AOAC International, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick Avenue, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877-2417, USA.
 
[20]  SAS Institute, SAS User Guide. LOGISTIC Procedure. Cary, NC-USA, 2009.
 
[21]  JISM (Jordan Institue of Specification and Metrology), Specification for Cereals, Pulses and Derived Products-Bread (Specification 19), JISM, Amman-Jordan, 2006.
 
[22]  Abu Hussain, F. and Takruri, H, “A study of salt content of different bread types marketed in Amman, Jordan”, Journal of Agricultural Science, 8(4). 169-178. March 2016.
 
[23]  Alkurd, R., Takruri, H.R., and Amr, A.M, “Trends of Energy and Macronutrients Intakes in Jordan as Obtained by Household Expenditure and Income Surveys”, Journal of Agricultural Science, 11 (1). 191-199. January 2019.