Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(8), 424-430
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-8-6
Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant, Antityrosinase Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Manufactured Chocolates in Taiwan Affected by Roasting Treatments

Heuy Ling Chu1 and Ying Chun Lin1,

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Section 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te District, Tainan, 71710 Taiwan, R.O.C.

Pub. Date: August 26, 2020

Cite this paper:
Heuy Ling Chu and Ying Chun Lin. Antioxidant, Antityrosinase Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Manufactured Chocolates in Taiwan Affected by Roasting Treatments. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(8):424-430. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-8-6

Abstract

Roasting is an important step in cocoa processing that affects the functional and organoleptic properties of chocolate products. The effect of roasting treatment on antioxidation, antityrosinase activity, and physicochemical properties of 12 manufactured chocolates from Southern Taiwan fermented cocoa beans was investigated. The cocoa beans were roasted at different fixed temperatures ranging from 90 to 150°C for different time duration 15-35 min. The results showed that more severe thermal treatment decreased the contents of total phenolic compounds and proanthocyanidins, from the highest 20.57± 0.86mg GAE /g defatted chocolate and 9.20±0.49 mg CyE /g defatted chocolate to the lowest 11.48±0.23 mg GAE /g defatted chocolate and 4.14±0.41 mg CyE /g defatted chocolate, respectively. Meanwhile, roasting treatment also reduced DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities in temperature and time-dependent manners. In addition, the low-roasting chocolate revealed the potent inhibitory action on mushroom tyrosinase activity at 2.5 mg/g defatted chocolate. However, chocolate produced from beans roasted at 130°C for 25 min was ranked the highest consumer acceptability in the sensory evaluation. Taken together, the optimization of cocoa bean roasting conditions can improve the health benefits of chocolate, while the low-roasting chocolate acts as a potent candidate for tyrosinase inhibitors.

Keywords:
Taiwan chocolate antioxidation antityrosinase sensory evaluation roasting treatment

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Żyżelewicz, D., Budryn, G., Oracz, J., Antolak, H., Kregiel, D. and Kaczmarska, M. “The effect on bioactive components and characteristics of chocolate by functionalization with raw cocoa beans”, Food Research International, 113. 234-244. 2018.
 
[2]  Magrone, T., Russo, M.A. and Jirillo, E. “Cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols: From biology to clinical applications”, Frontiors in Immunology, 8. 677. 2017.
 
[3]  Oracz, J., Żyżelewicz, D. and Nebesny, E. “The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: A review”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55. 1176-1192. 2015.
 
[4]  Afoakwa, E.O. “Effect of fermentation and extended pod storage on cocoa bean quality”, Cocoa production and processing technology. CRC press, Florida, 2014, pp. 205-250.
 
[5]  Oliviero, T., Capuano, E., Cammerer, B. and Fogliano, V. “Influence of roasting on the antioxidant activity and HMF formation of a cocoa bean model systems”, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57.147-152. 2009.
 
[6]  Ioannone, F., Mattia, C.D.D., De Gregorio, M., Sergi, M., Serafini, M. and Sacchetti, G. “Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing”, Food Chemistry, 174. 256-262. 2015.
 
[7]  Oracz, J., Nebesny, E. and Żyżelewicz, D. “Changes in the flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavanols composition of cocoa beans of different Theobroma cacao L. groups affected by roasting conditions”, Europen Food Research and Technology, 241. 663-681. 2015.
 
[8]  Ngamsuk, S., Huang, T.C. and Hsu, J.L. “Determination of phenolic compounds, procyanidins, and antioxidant activity in processed Coffea arabica L Leaves”, Foods, 8. 389. 2019.
 
[9]  Belšcˇak, A., Komes, D., Horzˇic´, D., Ganic´, K.K. and Karlovic´, D. “Comparative study of commercially available cocoa products in terms of their bioactive composition”, Food Research International, 42.707-716. 2009.
 
[10]  Mellinas, A.C., Jimenez, A. and Garrigós, M.C. “Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of cocoa bean shell waste and evaluation of its antioxidant, physicochemical and functional properties”, LWT-Food Science and Technology, 127. 109361. 2020.
 
[11]  Chu, H.L., Wang, B.S. and Duh, P.D. “Effects of selected organosulfur compounds on melanin formation”, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57(15). 7072-7077. 2009.
 
[12]  Quiroz-Reyes, C.N. and Fogliano, V. “Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products: The role of phenolics and melanoidins”, Journal of functional foods, 45. 480-490. 2018.
 
[13]  Aprotosoaie, A.C., Luca, S.V. and Miron, A. “Flavor chemistry of cocoa and cocoa products-an overview”, Comprehensive Review in Food Science and Food Safety, 15(1).73-91. 2016.
 
[14]  Pedan, V., Weber, C., Do, T., Fischer, N., Reich, E. and Rohn, S. “HPTLC fingerprint profile analysis of cocoa proanthocyanidins depending on origin and genotype”, Food Chemistry, 267. 277-287. 2018.
 
[15]  Engler, M.B. and Engler, M.M. “The vasculoprotective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate”, Nutrition Research, 24(9). 695-706. 2004.
 
[16]  Stanley, T.H., Buiten, C.B.V., Baker, S.A., Elias, R.J. “Anantheswaran, R.C. and Lambert, J.D. Impact of roasting on the flavan-3-ol composition, sensory-related chemistry, and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of cocoa beans”, Food Chemistry, 255. 414-420. 2018.
 
[17]  Okiyama, D.C.G., Navarro, S.L.B. and Rodrigues, C.E.C. “Cocoa shell and its compounds: Applications in the food industry”, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 63. 103-112. 2017.
 
[18]  Gheibi, N. and Taherkhani, N.”Inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol as two propolis derived flavonoids on tyrosinase”, Molecular Biology Research Communication, 3.301.2014.
 
[19]  Oracz, J., Nebesny, E. and Żyżelewicz, D. “Identification and quantification of free and bound phenolic compounds contained in the high-molecular weight melanoidin fractions derived from two different types of cocoa beans by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-HR-MSn”, Food Research International, 115.135-149. 2019.
 
[20]  Chai, W.M., Lin, M.Z., Wang, Y.X., Xu, K.L., Huang, W.Y., Pan, D.D., Zou, Z.R. and Peng, Y.Y. “Inhibition of tyrosinase by cherimoya pericarp proanthocyanidins: Structural characterization, inhibitory activity and mechanism”, Food Research International, 100. 731-739. 2017.
 
[21]  Krysiak, W. “Influence of roasting conditions on coloration of roasted cocoa beans”, Journal of Food Engineering, 77. 449-453. 2006.
 
[22]  Frauendorfer, F. and Schieberle, P. “Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations”, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54(15). 5521-5529. 2006.