Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(2), 110-120
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-2-6
Open AccessArticle

Fortification of Ground Roasted Coffees with Iron, Zinc and Calcium: Evaluating the Impact of Quality and Roast Degree on Sensory Responses

Angela Soares1, Nathalia M. Barros1, Luciana Costa1, Tatiana D Saint´ Pierre2, Carmen Donangelo3, Rosires Deliza4 and Adriana Farah1,

1Lab. de Química e Bioatividade de Alimentos e Núcleo de Pesquisa em Café, Instituto de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil

2Lab. de Espectrometria de Emissão, Inst. de Química, Pontifícia Univ. Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22451-900, Brazil

3Escuela de Nutrición, Univ. de la República, Montevideo 11100, Uruguay

4Embrapa Agroindústria de Alimentos, Av. das Américas, 29501 - Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, 23020-470 Brazil

Pub. Date: February 23, 2020

Cite this paper:
Angela Soares, Nathalia M. Barros, Luciana Costa, Tatiana D Saint´ Pierre, Carmen Donangelo, Rosires Deliza and Adriana Farah. Fortification of Ground Roasted Coffees with Iron, Zinc and Calcium: Evaluating the Impact of Quality and Roast Degree on Sensory Responses. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(2):110-120. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-2-6

Abstract

Micronutrients’ deficiency is a relevant public health issue with considerable socio-economic consequences. Food fortification has been widely used as a simple low-cost strategy to increase mineral intake. Considering that coffee is among the most consumed food products worldwide, gourmet and traditional medium and dark roasted C. arabica and C. canephora beans were ground and singly or jointly fortified with ferrous bisglycinate chelate (21mg iron/kg), zinc lactate (10.5mg zinc/kg), and calcium lactate (1.5g/kg) salts. Beverages were prepared at 10%, (w/v) using electric coffee dripper with nylon filter, and mineral recoveries were evaluated by Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Optical-Emission-Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Coffee beverages’ acceptance and sensory characterization were performed by 103 regular coffee consumers, using a 9-point hedonic scales and Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions. The impact of coffee quality (gourmet or traditional), roast degree (medium and dark) and mineral fortification (singly or jointly) on the beverage were evaluated. Mineral recoveries were 51.1%, 47.6%, and 51.3% for ferrous bisglycinate chelate, zinc lactate, and calcium lactate, respectively. Mean acceptance scores varied from 6.0 to 3.4. Unfortified blends and fortified blends with the three minerals were more liked by participants and were associated with positive attributes such as caramel, characteristic flavor, and chocolate. Roast degree and quality affected acceptance results, especially in blends fortified with a single mineral. The iron-fortified dark roasted blend was the least liked due to a strong metallic flavor, while dark roast was important to mask astringency in calcium-fortified gourmet blend, which had similar acceptance to unfortified blends. The beverage fortified with zinc was more accepted in medium roasted blend, regardless of being gourmet or traditional. Therefore, when fortifying coffee, issues related to the quality of the blend, roast degree and association with other components should be considered. In addition, results showed that the association of minerals had a positive effect on the consumer acceptance.

Keywords:
coffee fortification calcium minerals consumer acceptance CATA

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