Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(2), 80-86
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Nutrient Composition and Heavy Metals Content of Three Leafy Vegetables (Amaranthus Cruentus L., Lactuca Sativa L., Solanum Macrocarpon L.) in Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin

Egnon Jacques Hougbenou Houngla1, , Adam Gbankoto2, Carmelle Mizehoun-Adissoda3, Carole Bessi Lise Anani1, Patrick A. Edorh4, Kabirou Moutaïrou4 and Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué5

1Direction de l’Alimentation et de la Nutrition Appliquée, Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Elevage et de la Pêche, BP 295, Porto-Novo, Benin

2Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Pharmacologie Expérimentales, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey -Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin

3École de Nutrition et de Diététique, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 188, Cotonou, Bénin

4Département de Biochimie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin

5Laboratoire d’Etude et de Recherche en Chimie Appliquée, Ecole Polytechnique d’Abomey-Calavi, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

Pub. Date: February 16, 2020

Cite this paper:
Egnon Jacques Hougbenou Houngla, Adam Gbankoto, Carmelle Mizehoun-Adissoda, Carole Bessi Lise Anani, Patrick A. Edorh, Kabirou Moutaïrou and Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué. Nutrient Composition and Heavy Metals Content of Three Leafy Vegetables (Amaranthus Cruentus L., Lactuca Sativa L., Solanum Macrocarpon L.) in Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(2):80-86. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-2-2

Abstract

The interest of leafy vegetables has increased in recent years, mainly because of health benefits due of their nutritional compounds. Knowledge of the nutrients of vegetables is necessary to better value them in the diet of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the nutrients of three green leafy vegetables cultivated and consumed at Porto-Novo. For this purpose, using standard methods, carbohydrates, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc were determined in 24 samples of Amaranthus cruentus L., Solanum macrocarpon L. and Lactuca sativa L. and were compared. Also, heavy metals (Pb, Cd) contents of these vegetables and of soils were compared. The significant difference between nutrients of leafy vegetables was tested by ANOVA. Lactuca sativa L. has the highest water content, Amaranthus cruentus L. has the highest content of proteins, ash, fibre, zinc, calcium and potassium while the Solanum macrocarpon L. has the highest content of fat and iron. Solanum macrocarpon L. has the highest lead content while Amaranthus cruentus L. has the highest cadmium content. These results show that leafy vegetables could provide an important part of nutritional requirements for the adequate protection against diseases. The results suggest that Amaranthus cruentus L. has the high content of nutrients followed by Solanum macrocarpon L. and Lactuca sativa L.. Cadmium and lead found in vegetables of this study in Porto-Novo must be monitored and managed to prevent adverse consequences on human health.

Keywords:
Amaranthus cruentus L. Lactuca sativa L. Solanum macrocarpon L. nutrients bioaccumulation cadmium (Cd) lead (Pb)

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Jacques, P.F., Lyass, A., Massaro, J.M., Vasan, R.S. and D’Agostino, R.B., Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident Cardiovascular Disease. British Journal of Nutrition, 110, 545-551. 2013.
 
[2]  Olson, J.H., Erie, J.C. and Bakri, S.J., Nutritional supplementation and age-related macular degeneration. Seminars in Ophthalmology 26, 131-136. 2011. https://doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2011.577131
 
[3]  Rubaihayo, E.B., The Contribution of Indigenous Vegetables to Household Food Security. IK Notes 44. 2002. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/ en/396501468342229695/pdf/24775-Replacement-file-IKNT44.pdf
 
[4]  Jansen van Rensburg, W.S., Venter, S.L., Netshiluuhi, T.R., Van der Heever, E., Vorster, H.J. and De Rorde, J.A., Role of indigenous leafy vegetables in combating hunger and malnutrition. South African Journal of Botany, 70, 52-59. 2004.
 
[5]  Gupta, S. and Prakash, J., Nutritional and sensory quality of micronutrient-rich traditional products incorporated with green leafy vegetables. International Food Research Journal, 18, 667-675. 2011.
 
[6]  Beecher, G.R., Phytonutrients’ role in metabolism: effects on resistance to degenerative processes. Nutrition Reviews, 57, S3-S6. 1999.
 
[7]  Liu, R.H., Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Advances in Nutrition, 4, 384S-392S. 2013.
 
[8]  Sinha N.K., Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetables Processing. England: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. Retrieved from https://ubblab.weebly.com/uploads/4/7/4/6/47 469791/handbook_of_vegetables_&_vegetable_processing.pdf
 
[9]  Yang, R.-Y. and Keding, G.B., Nutritional contributions of important African indigenous vegetables. African indigenous vegetables in urban agriculture. In: C.M. Shackleton, M.W. Pasquini and A.W. Dresche (Eds.): African indigenous vegetables in urban agriculture.2009. pp. 105-143. London: Earthscan.
 
[10]  Micha, R., Khatibzadeh, S., Shi, P., Andrews, K.G., Engell, R.E. and Mozaffarian, D., Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide. BMJ Open, 5, 2015. e008705.
 
[11]  Dauchet, L., Amouyel, P., Hercberg, S. and Dallongeville, J., Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2588-2593. 2006.
 
[12]  Marmot, M., Achieving health equity: From root causes to fair outcomes. Lancet, 370, 1153-1163. 2007.
 
[13]  MAEP (2016). Rapport d’évaluation du Plan Stratégique de Relance du Secteur Agricole. Cotonou, Bénin.
 
[14]  Nielsen S.S., Food Analysis, Food Science Texts Series, Fourth Edition, Purdue University, West Lafayette USA, II part: Compositional Analysis of Foods. 2010.
 
[15]  Ovuakporie-Uvo O., Idu M., Omoregie E.S., Nutrients and chemical composition of Desplatsia dewevrei. Food Science & Nutition, 7, 1768-1777. 2019.
 
[16]  Greenfield, H. and Southgate, D.A.T., Données sur la composition des aliments, production, gestion et utilisation. B.A. Burlingame et U.R. Charrondière, FAO (2nd édition) Rome. 2007.
 
[17]  Hougbenou Houngla E.J., Tossougbo Hinson C.D., Gbankoto A., Anani B.L.C., Characteristics of Urban Market Gardening in Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin, West Africa. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 66-76. 2019. https://www.iaras.org/iaras/filedownloads/ijas/2019/014-0009(2019).pdf
 
[18]  FAO (2006). Proximate composition of foods. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/ag
 
[19]  Singh, G., Kawatra, A. and Sehgal, S., Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 56, 359-364. 2001.
 
[20]  Traoré, K., Parkouda, C., Savadogo, A., Ba/Hama, F., Kamga, R. and Traoré, Y., Effect of processing methods on the nutritional content of three traditional vegetables leaves: Amaranth, black nightshade and jute mallow. Food Science & Nutrition, 5, 1139-1144. 2017.
 
[21]  Medoua, G.N. and Oldewage-Theron, W.H., Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus), a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51, 736-42. 2014.
 
[22]  Odhav, B., Beekrum, S., Akula, U.S. and Baijnath, H., Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 430-435. 2007.
 
[23]  Colonna, E., Rouphael, Y., Barbieri, G. and De Pascale, S., Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light Intensities. Food Chemistry, 199, 702-710. 2016.
 
[24]  Pedersen, A.N., Kondrup, J., Børsheim, E., (2013) Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review. Food Nutrition Research, 57. 2013. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21245
 
[25]  Vonapartis, E., Aubin, M., Seguin, P., Mustafa, A.F., Charron, J., Seed composition of ten industrial hemp cultivars approved for production in Canada. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 39, 8-12. 2015.
 
[26]  Kris-Etherton, P.M., Hecker, K.D., Bonanome, A., Coval, S.M., Binkoski, A.E., Hilpert, K.F., Griel, A.E. and Etherton, T.D., Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. American Journal of Medicine, 113 Suppl 9B, 71S-88S. 2002.
 
[27]  Schippers, R.R., African Indigenous Vegetables. An Overview of the Cultivated Species. Natural Resources Institute/ACP-EU. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Chatham, UK. 2002.
 
[28]  American Association of Cereal Chemists, The definition of dietary fibre. Report of the Dietary Fibre Definition. Committee to the Board of Directors of the AAC, 1, 10. 2001.
 
[29]  Cummings, J.H., Metabolic and physiological aspects of dietary fibre. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. 1996.
 
[30]  Rodríguez, R., Jiménez, A., Fernández-Bolaños, J., Guillén, R., Heredia, A., Dietary fibre from vegetable products as source of functional ingredients. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(1), 3-15. January 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.10.002
 
[31]  Srivastava, R.S.P. and Bhatt, B.P., Antioxidant and nutritional potential of some underutilized leafy vegetables consumed by tribals of Jharkhand, India. Current Science, 114, 1222-1233. 2018.
 
[32]  FAO, The state of food insecurity in the world economic and social development. Rome, Italy. 2004.
 
[33]  Acho, C.F., Zoue, L.T., Akpa E.E., Yapo V.G., and Niamke S.L., Leafy vegetables consumed in Southern Côte d’Ivoire: a source of high value nutrients. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 20, 3159-3170. 2014. http://www.m.elewa.org/JAPS/2014/20.3/3.pdf
 
[34]  Jiménez-Aguilar, D.M. and Grusak, M.A., Evaluation of minerals, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 70, 357-64. 2015.
 
[35]  Hasanuzzaman, M., Borhannuddin Bhuyan, M.H.M., Nahar, K., Hossain, Md.S., Al Mahmud, J.Md., Hossen, S., Masud, A.A.C. et al., Potassium: A Vital Regulator of Plant Responses and Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses. Agronomy, 8, 31. 2018.
 
[36]  WHO. Prevention of recurrent heart attacks and strokes in low and middle income populations: Evidence-based recommendations for policy makers and health professionals. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.
 
[37]  Gröber, U., Schmidt, J. and Kisters, K., Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients, 7, 8199-8226. 2015.
 
[38]  Levander, O.A., Fruit and vegetable contributions to dietary mineral intake in human health and disease. HortScience, 25, 1486-1488. 1990.
 
[39]  Guerra, F., Trevizam, A.R., Muraoka, T., Marcante, N.C. and Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G., Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health. Scientia Agricola, 69, 54-60. 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162012000100008
 
[40]  Volpe, M.G., La Cara, F., Volpe, F., De Mattia, A., Serino, V., Pettito, F., Zavalloni, C., Limone, F., Pellecchia, R., De Prisco, P. P. and Di Stasio, M., Heavy metal uptake in the enological food chain. Food Chemistry, 117, 553-560. 2009.
 
[41]  Monteiro, V., Cavalcante, D.G.S.M., Vilela, M.B.F.A., Sofia, S.H. and Martinez, C.B.R., In vivo and in vitro exposures for the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of lead on the Neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. Aquatic toxicology, 104, 291-298. 2011.
 
[42]  Wittman, R. and Hu, H., Cadmium exposure and nephropathy in a 28-year-old female metals worker. Environmental Health Perspective, 110, 1261-1266. 2002.
 
[43]  Burdena, V.M., Sandheinrich, M.B. and Caldwell, C.A. Effects of lead on the growth and 6-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environemental Pollution 101, 285-289. 1998.
 
[44]  Cavas, T., Garanko, N.N. and Arkhipchuk, V.V. Induction of micronuclei and binuclei in blood, gill and liver cells of fishes subchronically exposed to cadmium chloride and copper sulphate. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43, 569-574. 2005.
 
[45]  Mendez-Armenta, M. and Rios, C. Cadmium neurotoxicity. Mini review. Environmental Toxicology Pharmacology, 23, 350-358. 2007.
 
[46]  Itanna, F., Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 6, 295-302. 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v16i3.9797
 
[47]  Wagner, G.J., Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Advances in Agronomy, 51, 173-212. 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60593-3
 
[48]  Ferré-Huguet, N., Marti-Cid, R., Schuhmacher, M. and Domingo, J.L., Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown on soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia, Spain. Biological Trace Element Research, 123, 66-79. 2008.
 
[49]  Kooner, R., Mahajan, B.V.C. and Dhillon, W.S., Heavy metal contamination in vegetables, fruits, soil and water - A Critical Review. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment & Biotechnology, 7, 603-612. 2014.
 
[50]  Antonious, G. and Kochhar, T., Mobility of heavy metals from soil into hot pepper fruits: a field study. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 82, 59-63. 2009.
 
[51]  Cui, Y.L., Zhu, Y.G., Zhai, R.H., Chen, D.Y., Huang, Y.Z., Qiu, Y. and Liang, J.Z., Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International, 30, 785-791. 2004.
 
[52]  Wang, G., Su, M.Y., Chen, Y.H., Lin, F.F., Luo, D. and Gao, S.F., Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China. Environmental Pollution, 144, 127-135. 2006.
 
[53]  Lake, D.L., Kirk, P.W.W. and Lester, J.N., The fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and sewage sludge amended soils: a review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 13, 175-183. 1984.
 
[54]  Li, Y., Zhang, Q., Wang, R.Y., Gou, X., Wang, H.L. and Wang, S., Temperature changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in Solanum tuberosum L.. Climatic Change, 112, 655-672. 2012.
 
[55]  Li, Y., Li, L., Zhang, Q., Yang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, R. and Zhang, J. Influence of temperature on the heavy metals accumulation of five vegetable species in semiarid area of northwest China. Chemistry and Ecology, 29, 353-365. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2013.769970