Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(10), 701-708
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-7-10-3
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Compositions of Imported Genetically Modified and Organic Soybeans Purchased from Taiwan Market

Huan-Yu Lin1, Bo-Chou Chen1, Mei-Li Chao1, Hui-Wen Chang1, Hsin-Tang Lin2 and Wen-Shen Chu1,

1Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan

2Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei 115, Taiwan(Present address: Graduate Institute of Food Safety, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan)

Pub. Date: October 14, 2019

Cite this paper:
Huan-Yu Lin, Bo-Chou Chen, Mei-Li Chao, Hui-Wen Chang, Hsin-Tang Lin and Wen-Shen Chu. Comparison of Compositions of Imported Genetically Modified and Organic Soybeans Purchased from Taiwan Market. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019; 7(10):701-708. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-7-10-3

Abstract

Soybean is an excellent source of plant-derived protein, and soy products are one of the important protein sources for vegetarians in Taiwan. Soybean production in Taiwan is not self-sufficient. Taiwan imports 2.5 million tons of soybeans annually. More than 90% of the imported soybeans are genetically modified. To provide an objective assessment on safety of genetically modified soybean and for post-market monitoring, we conducted a comparative assessment on key component compositions between imported genetically modified and organic soybeans. All the soybean samples were purchased from the local market to simulate the status of Taiwanese consumers purchasing soybeans. The genetically modified soybean samples were herbicide-tolerant soybeans. The contents of the proximate, the amino acid composition, the fatty acid composition, vitamins, minerals, isoflavones, and anti-nutritional factors of soybean samples were analyzed. Most contents of the key components of the genetically modified soybean had no significant difference with those of the organic soybean in this study. However, the contents of cysteine and α-linoleic acid were significantly lower in the genetically modified soybean samples, and the contents of crude fat, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, vitamin K1, and calcium were significantly higher in the genetically modified soybean samples. But they were all within the range of reference values. A total of 314 pesticide residues in each of the samples were analyzed. Only glyphosate residue was detected in the genetically modified soybean samples, but it is well below the threshold prescribed by the government. In summary, the imported genetically modified and organic soybeans purchased from Taiwan market were shown to be substantially equivalent in composition.

Keywords:
genetically modified soybean organic soybean composition substantially equivalent

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 1

References:

[1]  ISAAA, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2018. ISAAA, Brief 54. ISAAA: Ithaca, New York. 2018.
 
[2]  Council of Agriculture (COA), Food Supply and Utilization Yearbook, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/book/Book.aspx [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[3]  Clarke, D.B. and Lloyd, A.S., “Dietary exposure estimate of isoflavones from the 1998 UK Total Diet Study,” Food Additives and Contaminants, 21(4), 305-316, Apr. 2004.
 
[4]  CPT, Import and export goods quantity, value inquiry, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://portal.sw.nat.gov.tw/APGA/GA03. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[5]  FAO, GM food safety assessment tools for trainers, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i0110e.pdf. [Accessed Oct. 21, 2019].
 
[6]  Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA), Current approvals of genetically modified foods in Taiwan, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Food/GmoInfoEn.aspx?nodeID=300. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[7]  Chen, J.T., Wen, C.Y., Chao, M.L. and Chu, W.S., “Studies on DNA extraction and quantitation detection of genetically modified maize using reference plasmid,” Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science, 43, 139-148, 2005.
 
[8]  AOAC, Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytic Chemists International, 19th edn., AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland. 2012.
 
[9]  Simpson, R.J., Neuberger, M.R. and Liu, T.Y., “Complete amino acid analysis of proteins from a single hydrolysate,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 251(7), 1936-1940, Apr. 1976.
 
[10]  Pinthong, R., Macrae, R. and Dick, J., “The development of a soya‐based yoghurt.” Institute of Food Science and Technology, 15(6), 661-667, Dec. 1980.
 
[11]  Gao, Y., Shanga, C., Saghai Maroof, M.A., Biyasheva, R.M., Grabaub, E.A. Kwanyuen, P., Burton, J.W. and Buss, G.R., “A modified colorimetric method for phytic acid analysis in soybean,” Crop Science, 47,1797-1803, Sep. 2007.
 
[12]  AOCS, Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS, 6th edn., Association of Oil Chemists Society, Urbana, Illinois. 2009.
 
[13]  Barnes, S., Kirk, M. and Coward, L., “Isoflavones and their conjugates in soy foods: extraction conditions and analysis by HPLC-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42(11), 2466-2474, 1994.
 
[14]  OECD, Revised consensus document on compositional considerations for new varietirs of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]: Key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients, toxicants and allergens. ENV/JM/MONO 24. Series on the safety of novel foods and feeds No. 25. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris, France. 2012.
 
[15]  ILSI Research Foundation, ILSI Crop Composition Database version 7.0, [Online]. Available: http://www.cropcomposition.org/query/index.html. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[16]  Hamilton, T.S. and Nakamura, F.T., “The cysteine content of eleven varieties of soybeans,” Journal of Agricultural Research, 61(3), 207-213, Apr. 1940.
 
[17]  Calderónde la Barca, A.M., Vázquez-Moreno, L. and Robles-Burgueño, M.R., “Active soybean lectin in foods: Isolation and quantitation,” Food Chemistry, 39(3), 321-327, 1991.
 
[18]  Lin, H.Y., Chen, J.T., Chao, M.L., Chen, B.C., Wang, J.C., Liao, H.C., Chang, H.W., Lin, H.T. and Chu, W.S., “Compositional analysis of genetically modified soybeans placed on Taiwan market,” International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 3(31), 1-16, Oct. 2019.
 
[19]  Codex Alimentarius, Foods derived from modern biotechnology, Second Edition, World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2009.
 
[20]  Hwang, E.Y., Song, Q., Jia, G., Specht, J.E., Hyten, D.L., Costa, J. and Cregan, P.B., “A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean,” BMC Genomics, 15, 1-12, Jan. 2014.
 
[21]  Balisteiro, D.M., Rombaldi, C.V. and Genovese, M.I., “Protein, isoflavones, trypsin inhibitory and in vitro antioxidant capacities: comparison among conventionally and organically grown soybeans,” Food Research International, 51(1), 8-14, Apr. 2013.
 
[22]  Bøhn T, Cuhra, M., Traavik, T., Sanden, M., Fagan, J. and Primicerio, R., “Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans,” Food Chemistry, 153, 207-215, Jan. 2014.
 
[23]  Mogahed, M.I., Lobna AS, Naglaa, N., Magda, M., Hellal, F.A. and El Sayed, S.A.A., “Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on insect infestation, yield and seed components of soybean,” Journal of Entomological Research, 42(4), 455-460, Dec. 2018.
 
[24]  Venkatesh, T.V., Cook, K., Liu, B., Perez, T., Willse, A., Tichich, R., Feng, P. and Harrigan, G.G., “Compositional differences between near-isogenic GM and conventional maize hybrids are associated with backcrossing practices in conventional breeding,” Plant Biotechnology Journal, 13(2), 200-210, Feb. 2015.
 
[25]  Babujia, L.C., Silva, A.P., Biondo, P.B.F., Garcia, J.C., Mandarino, J.M.G. and Visentainer, J.V., “Chemical composition of grains from glyphosate-resistant soybean and its conventional parent under different edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil,” Acta Scientiarum Agronomy, 37(4), 463-471, Oct. 2015.
 
[26]  Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA), Standards for Pesticide Residue Limits in Foods, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Law/PesticideList.aspx?nodeID=520&rand=1215511388. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[27]  European Commission (EC), EU pesticides database, Code number 0401070. [Online]. Available:http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides- database/public/?event=pesticide.residue.CurrentMRL&language= EN&pestResidueId=120. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[28]  Paulson, J.K. and Kurai, T., “Japan proposes the revision of MRLs for 7 agricultural chemicals,” USDA Foreign Agricultural Service Grain Report, Gain Report Number: JA7053. Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available: https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Japan %20proposes%20the%20revision%20of%20MRLs%20for%207% 20agricultural%20chemicals_Tokyo_Japan_4-18-2017.pdf. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[29]  FAO/WHO, Report of the joint meeting on pesticide residues, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/jmprsummary2016.pdf?ua=1. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].
 
[30]  Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA), Food labeling for genetically modified food, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.mohw.gov.tw/cp-2645-20513-1.html. [Accessed Oct. 7, 2019].