Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(9), 624-631
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-7-9-1
Open AccessArticle

Glycemic Index of Five Ghanaian Corn and Cassava Staples

Eunice Serwaa Yeboah1, Jacob K. Agbenohervi2, and Gilbert Owiah Sampson3

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

3Department of Hospitality and Tourism, College of Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba

Pub. Date: September 10, 2019

Cite this paper:
Eunice Serwaa Yeboah, Jacob K. Agbenohervi and Gilbert Owiah Sampson. Glycemic Index of Five Ghanaian Corn and Cassava Staples. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019; 7(9):624-631. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-7-9-1

Abstract

Glycemic index (GI) quantifies and measures the blood glucose raising effect of a food containing a specific amount of carbohydrate. Due to this concerns have been raised on the quality of carbohydrate and the indices that influence its metabolism. The objective of study was to investigate the effect of processing on the glycemic index of five Ghanaian corn and cassava staples. The research design was a cross over trial. Ten healthy subjects consisting of five males and five females were included in the study. Study subjects were served 50g of pure glucose containing 50g of available carbohydrate and 200ml of pure water. Glucose which served as the reference food was given to subjects on two different occasions. The subjects were also served specific 50g of abolo, akple, kafa, local kokonte and processed kokonte on specific days. The glycemic index figures were assessed by using official methods and reported as mean for the ten study subjects. Locally made kokonte had the least GI of 7 followed by processed kokonte which had a GI of 18 whiles kafa had a low GI of 29. Abolo had a medium GI value of 58 and akple also had a medium glycemic index value of 69. There was no significant difference between the GI of locally made kokonte and processed kokonte (p > 0.05) indicating processing had no significant effect on the GI of kokonte.

Keywords:
Glycemic Index blood glucose abolo akple kafa kokonte

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Lamothe, L.M., Le, K., Samara, R.A., Roger, O., Green, H. and Marce, K. (2017). The scientific basis of healthful carbohydrate profile. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1-54.
 
[2]  Mann, J., Cummings, J. H., Englyst, H. N., Key, T., Liu, S., Riccardi, G., et al. (2007). FAO/WHO Scientific Update on carbohydrates in Human nutrtion: conclusions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61 (1): 132-137.
 
[3]  Hemery, Y., Rouau, X., Lullien-Pellerin, V., Barron, C. and Abecassis, J. (2007). Dry processes to develop wheat fractions and products with enhanced nutritional quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 46, 327-347.
 
[4]  Hernot, D.C., Boileau, T.W., Bauer, L.L., Swanson, K.S. and Fahey, G.C. (2008). In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 56: 10721-10726.
 
[5]  Eli-Cophie D., Agbenorhevi, J.K. and Annan, R.A. (2017). Glycemic Index of Some Local Staples in Ghana, Food Sciences & Nutrition, 5(1):131-138.
 
[6]  Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr; 34: 362-6.
 
[7]  Gning, S.B, Thiam, M., Fall, F., Ba-Fall, K., Mbaye, P.S & Foucarde, L. (2007). Sugar Diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Epidemiological Aspect, Difficulties of Management. Tropical Medicine, 67, (6): 607-611.
 
[8]  Koussasi K.N., Tiahou G.G, Abodo F.R.J, Camara-Cisse M. & Amani N.G, (2009). “Influence of the Variety and Cooking Method on Glycemic Index of Yam”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, (7): 993-999.
 
[9]  Kalergeris M., De Gandpre E. & Anderson C. (2005). ”The Role of Glycemic Index in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes: A Review and Discussion”, Canada Journal of Diabetes, Vol.29, No.1, pp. 27-38.
 
[10]  Mash, K. & Brand-Miller, J. (2008) Glycemic Index Obesity, and Chronic Disease”, American of Lifestyle Medicine, Vol.2, No.2, pp.142-150.
 
[11]  Aston, L. M., Gambell, J. M., Lee, D. M., Bryant, S. P., & Jebb, S. A. (2008). Determination of the glycaemic index of various staple carbohydrate-rich foods in the UK diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 279-285.
 
[12]  FAO/WHO. (1998). Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, (FAO Food and Nutrition Paper - 66). Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations, Rome.
 
[13]  Eyeson, K. K., Ankrah, E. K., Sundararajan, A. R., Karinpaa, A., & Rudzka, M. J. (1975). Composition of Foods Commonly Used in Ghana. Accra: Secretariat of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.
 
[14]  Wolever, T. M., Vuksan, V., & Jenkins, A. A. (2011). Determination of Glycemic Index of: Hand-Stretched Cheese Pizza. Toronto: Glycemic Index Laboratories Inc.
 
[15]  Jenkins, D.J.A., Kendall, C.W.C.; Augustin, L.S.A. Franceschi, S., Hamidi, M, Marchie, A., Jenkins, A.L, and Axelsen, M. (2002). Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76 (1): 266-273.
 
[16]  Bahado-Singh, P. S., Riley, C. K., Wheatly, A. O., & Lowe, H. I. (2011). Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica. J Nutr Metab, 2-6.
 
[17]  Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Zdravkovitz U, Wursch P, Vuksan V. (2002). Depression of glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 622-628.
 
[18]  Eyeson, K. K. and Ankrah, E. K. (1975). Composition of foods commonly used in Ghana. Food Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Accra, Ghana.
 
[19]  Bornet, F. R., Costagliola, D., Blayo, A., & et al, (1987). Insulinogenic and glycemic indexes of six starch-rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics. American Journal clinical Nutrtion , 45, 588-95.
 
[20]  Omoregie E.S & Osagie A.U. (2008). Glycemic Indicies and Glycemic Load of Some Nigerian Foods. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B 1154 Benin City, Nigeria.
 
[21]  Lin, M.-H. A., Wu, M.-C., Lu, S., & Lin, J. (2010). Glycemic index, glycemic load and insulinemic index of Chinese starchy foods. World J Gastroenterology, 16 (39), 4973-4979.
 
[22]  Holm, J., Lundquist, I., Bjorck, I., Eliason, A.C. and Asp, N.G. (1988). Degree of starch gelatinization, digestion rate of starch in vitro and metabolic response in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 47: 1010-1016.
 
[23]  Silvester, K. R., Englyst, H. N., & Cummings, J. H. (1995). Ileal recovery of starch from whole diets containing resistant starch measured in vitro and fermentation of ileal effluent. American Journal of Nutr, 62, 403-11.
 
[24]  Annison G. & Topping D.L. (1994). Nutritional role of resistant starch: Chemical Structure vs Physiological Function. Annu Rev Nutr; 14:297-320.
 
[25]  Sievert D, Czuchajowska A, & Pomeranz Y. (1991). Enzyme resistant starch.III. X-ray diffraction of autoclaved amylomaize. Cereal Chem; 68:86-91.
 
[26]  Ostman, E., Granfeldt, Y., Persson, L., & Bjorck, I. (2005). Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 983-988.
 
[27]  Liljeberg, H., & Bjorck, I. (1998). Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia. European Journal of Clin. Nutr, 52, 368-371.
 
[28]  O’Dea K, Nestel P.J, & Antonoff, L. (1980). Physical factors influencing postprandial Glucose and insulin responses to starch. Am J Clin Nutr; 33:760-5.
 
[29]  Collier, G. & O’Dea, K. (1982). Effect of physical form of carbohydrate on the postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr; 36:10-4.
 
[30]  ASPNG. (1987). Definition and analysis of dietary fibre. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 129: 16-20.
 
[31]  Pi, SFX. (2002). Glycemic Index and Disease. Am J Clin Nutri. 76:29085-2985.
 
[32]  Ascheri D.P.R. & Vilela, E.R. (1995). Changes in cassava flour by fermentation in the manufacture of cookies. Pesq. Agropec. Bras., 30, 269-279.
 
[33]  Cereda, M.P. & Bonassi, I.A. (1985). Quality evaluation of commercial fermented cassava starch: Organic acids and water absorption. Rev. Bras. Manioc, 3, 21-30.
 
[34]  Demiate, I.M., Dupuy, N., Huvenne, J.P., Cereda, M.P. & Wosiaki, G. (2000). Relationship between banking behavior of modified cassava starches and starch chemical structure determined by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Polym., 42, 149-158.
 
[35]  Pereira, J., Ciacco, C.F., Vilela, E.R. Q & Texeira, L.S. (1999). Fermented starch in cookie making: study of alternative sources. Food Sci. Technol., 19, 287-293.
 
[36]  Brand, J. C., Nicholson, P. L., Thorburn, A. W., & Truswell, A. S. (1985). Food Processing and Glycemic index. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42, 1192-1196.
 
[37]  Frost, G.S. & Dornhurst, A. (2005). Glycemic index. In: Encyclopedia of human nutrition, vol. 2, edn 2. Allan, L., Prentice, A. and Caballero B. Eds, Academic Press. pp 413-418.
 
[38]  Robertson M.D, Henderson R. A, Vist, G. E & Rumsey R.D.E (2002). Extended effect of evening meal carbohydrate/fat ratio on fasting and postprandial substrate metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75, 505-510.
 
[39]  Wolever T.M, Jenkins D.J, Ocana AM, Rao V.A & Collier, G.R (1988b). Second-meal effect: low-glycaemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycaemic response. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48, 1041-1047.
 
[40]  Thorburn, A., Muir, J., & Proitto, J. (1993). Carbohydrate fermentation lowers hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism, 42, 780-785.
 
[41]  Klein S, Sakurai Y, Romijn JA & Carroll RM (1993). Progressive alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism during short-term fasting in young adult men. American Journal of Physiology, 265, 801-806.
 
[42]  Samara J.S, Clark M.L, Humphreys S.M, Macdonald I.A & Frayn K.N (1996). Regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue during early starvation. American Journal of Physiology, 271, 541-546.
 
[43]  Collier G & O’Dea K (1983) .The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 941-944.
 
[44]  Granfeldt Y., Bjorck I., & Hagander B. (1991). On the importance of processing conditions, product thickness and egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta: a comparison with bread made from ‘pasta ingredients.’ Eur J Clin Nutr; 45:489-99.
 
[45]  Liljeberg H.G, Lonner C.H & Bjorck I.M (1995). Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 1503-1511.
 
[46]  Liljeberg H.G, Bjorck I.M. (1996). Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycaemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. Am J Clin Nutr; 64: 886-93.
 
[47]  Wolever T.M.S & Bolognesi C. (1996b). Prediction of glucose and insulin responses of normal subjects after consuming mixed meals varying in energy, protein, fat carbohydrate and glycaemic index. Journal of Nutrition 126, 2807-2812.
 
[48]  Wolever, T. M., Katzaman-Relle, L., Jenkins, A. L., Vuksan, V., Josse, R., & Jenkins, D. J. (1994). Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrates in Patients with diabetes. Nutr. Res., 4, 651-669.