Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(7), 522-529
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-7-7-6
Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Potential Application of Blend of Passion Fruit Peel with Rice Flour in an Extruded Product for Fiber Enhancement

Valeria França de Souza1, Jose Luis Ramirez Ascheri2, and Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri3

1Post graduate Program in Food Science and Technology at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2Embrapa Food Technology, Food Extrusion and Physical Properties Lab, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

3Postgraduate of Agricultural Engineering Course, Goias State University (UEG), Anapolis, Brazil

Pub. Date: July 18, 2019

Cite this paper:
Valeria França de Souza, Jose Luis Ramirez Ascheri and Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri. Characterization and Potential Application of Blend of Passion Fruit Peel with Rice Flour in an Extruded Product for Fiber Enhancement. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019; 7(7):522-529. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-7-7-6


By-products from the production of passion fruit juices can be a raw material for the formulation of foods with higher added value. Rice, characterized by being hypoallergenic and gluten-free, can be used with the passion fruit peel. The objective of this study was to prepare a precooked mixture by extrusion of rice flour (Rf) and passion fruit peel (Pfp) for the subsequent formulation of cookies with high fiber content and to determine the physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of the flour and processed biscuits obtained. Experimental design of 20 treatments with (Pfp:Rf) percent ratios of 1.6/99.4, 5/95, 10/90, 15/85, and 18.4/81.6%; with moisture percentages of 14.64, 16, 18, 20 and 21.36%; and temperatures of 99.6, 120, 150, 180, and 200.4°C. The extrudates were characterized relative to the centesimal composition, dietary fiber, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), radial expansion index (REI), Ray-X diffraction (DRX), and microbiological stability. The results were subjected to analyses of variance and tests of comparisons of means (Tukey, p <0.05). Of three treatments, the best was chosen for use in obtaining the cookies. For ready-to-eat cookies, the formulation with 18.4% of Pfp flour showed 6.75% acceptability with the judges with an average score of 6.5, which is equivalent to I liked it slightly. For gluten-free cookies stored with microbiological stability for 120 days, the presence of microorganisms was not observed. From the technological point of view, the development of cookie formulations is a viable alternative for human consumption of precooked Pfp and Rf.

dietary fiber functional properties by-product extrusion-cooking blends cookies

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Seixas F L, Fukuda D L, Turbiani F R B, Garcia P S, Petkowicz C L D O, Jagadevan S, & Gimenes M L. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) by microwave-induced heating. Food Hydrocolloids, 2014; 38, 186-192.
[2]  Cheok C Y, Adzahan N M, Rahman R A, Abedin N H, Hussain N, Sulaiman R, & Chong G H. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2016; 58, 335-361.
[3]  Raju I N, Reddy K K, Kumari C K, Reddy E B, Rao S D, Reddy C D & Watson R R. Efficacy of purple passion fruit peel extract in lowering cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2013; 18, 183-190.
[4]  Surasani V K R. Application of food extrusion process to develop fish meat-based extruded products. Food Engineering Reviews, 2016; (8):448-456.
[5]  Kosińska-Cagnazzo A, Bocquel D, Marmillod I & Andlauer W. Stability of goji bioactives during extrusion cooking process. Food Chemistry, 2017; 230, 250-256.
[6]  Ascheri J L R & Carvalho C W P. Tecnologia de extrusão: Uma ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de produtos. In L E Kurozawa & S R R D. Costa (Eds.), Tendências e inovações em ciência, tecnologia e engenharia de alimentos (pp. 123-146). São Paulo, Brazil: Atheneu, 2014.
[7]  Elleuch M, Bedigian D, Roiseux O, Besbes S, Blecker C & Attia H. Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chemistry, 2011; 124, 411-421.
[8]  Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy S M & Brinkley L J. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 2000; 342, 1392-1398.
[9]  Post R E, Mainous A G. King D E and Simpson K N. Dietary Fiber for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. J Am Board Fam Med. 2012; 25 (1): 16-23.
[10]  Coqueiro A Y, Pereira J R R & Galante F. Farinha da casca do fruto de passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg (maracujá-amarelo): Do potencial terapêutico aos efeitos adversos. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 2016; 18, 563-569.
[11]  Lima E S, Schwertz M C, Sobreira C R C & Borras M R L. Efeito hipoglicemiante da farinha do fruto de maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth) em ratos normais e diabéticos. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 2012; 14, 383-388.
[12]  Hernández-Santos B, Vivar-Vera M D L Á, Rodríguez-Miranda J, Herman-Lara, E, Torruco-Uco, J G, Acevedo-Vendrell, O, & Martínez-Sánchez, C E. Dietary fibre and antioxidant compounds in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel and depectinised peel waste. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2015; 50, 268-274.
[13]  Elleuch, M, Bedigian D, Roiseux O, Besbes S, Blecker C, Attia H. Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review, Food Chemistry, 2011; 124(2): 411-421.
[14]  Alam M S, Pathania S & Sharma A. Optimization of the extrusion process for development of high fibre soybean-rice ready-to-eat snacks using carrot pomace and cauliflower trimmings. LWT, 2016; 74, 135-144.
[15]  Chávez D W H, Ascheri J L R, Carvalho C W P, Godoy R L O & Pacheco, S. Sorghum and roasted coffee blends as a novel extruded product: Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. Journal of Functional Foods, 2017; 29, 93-103.
[16]  Devi N L, Shobha S, Tang X, Shaur S A, Dogan H & Alavi S. Development of protein-rich sorghum-based expanded snacks using extrusion technology. International Journal of Food Properties, 2013;16, 263-276.
[17]  Silva R F D, Ascheri J L R, Pereira R G F A & Modesta R C D. Aceitabilidade de biscoitos e bolos à base de arroz com café extrusados. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 2009; 29, 815-819.
[18]  Alves P L da S, Berrios J De J, Pan J and Ascheri JLR. Passion fruit shell flour and rice blends processed into fiber-rich expanded extrudates. Journal of Food, 2018; 16(1): 901-908.
[19]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Methods 932.06, 925.09, 985.29, 923.03. 17 ed. Arlington, 2010.
[20]  Box G E P & Behnken D W. Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Technometrics, 1960, 2, 455-475.
[21]  Cochran W G & Cox G M. Experimental designs. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 1957.
[22]  Alvarez-Martinez L, Kondury K P & Harper J M A. general model for expansion of extruded products. Journal of Food Science, 1988; 53, 609-615.
[23]  Assis L, Zavareze E D R, Radünz A L, Dias Á, Gutkoski L C & Elias M C. Propriedades nutricionais, tecnológicas e sensoriais de biscoitos com substituição de farinha de trigo por farinha de aveia ou farinha de arroz parboilizado. Alimentos e Nutrição Araraquara, 2009; 20, 15-24.
[24]  Anderson R A, Conway H F, Pfeifer V F & Griffin L. Gelatinization of corn grits by roll- and extrusion-cooking. Cereal Science Today, 1969; 14, 4-11.
[25]  Downes F P & Ito K. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association (APHA), 2001.
[26]  Stone H., Sidel JL. Sensory Evaluation Practices. Academic Press, 2004 - 377 páginas.
[27]  Martínez R, Torres P, Meneses M A, Figueroa J G, Pérez-Álvarez J A & Viuda-Martos M. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate. Food Chemistry, 2012; 135: 1520-1526.
[28]  Chawla R & Patil G R. Soluble dietary fiber. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2010; 9:178-196.
[29]  Sharma S K, Bansal S, Mangal M, Dixit A K, Gupta R K & Mangal, A K. Utilization of food processing by-products as dietary, functional, and novel fiber: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2016; 56: 1647-1661.
[30]  Maphosa Y & Jideani V A. Dietary fiber extraction for human nutrition—A review. Food Reviews International, 2015; 32: 98-115.
[31]  Fungwe T, Lisa B & Hazel H. The food supply and dietary fiber: Its availability and effect on health. Nutrition insight 36 - USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. 2007.
[32]  Leoro M G V, Clerici M T P S, Chang Y K & Steel C J. Evaluation of the in vitro glycemic index of a fiber-rich extruded breakfast cereal produced with organic passion fruit fiber and corn flour. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 2010; 30: 964-968.
[33]  Li Y, Lv M-R, Wei Y-J, Sun L, Zhang J-X, Zhang H-G, Li B. Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 2017; 253: 373-382.
[34]  Lam C D and Flores R A. Effect of Particle Size and Moisture Content on Viscosity of Fish Feed. Cereal Chem. 2003; 80(1): 20-24.
[35]  Brennan M A, Menard C, Roudaut G & Brennan C S. Amaranth, millet and buckwheat flours affect the physical properties of extruded breakfast cereals and modulates their potential glycaemic impact. Starch Stärke, 2012; 64: 392-398.
[36]  Capriles V D & Arêas J A G. Avaliação da qualidade tecnológica de snacks obtidos por extrusão de grão integral de amaranto ou de farinha de amaranto desengordurada e suas misturas com fubá de milho. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology. 2012; 15: 21-29.
[37]  Carvalho A V, Bassinello P Z, Mattietto R D A, Carvalho R N, Rios A D O & Seccadio L L. Processamento e caracterização de snack extrudado a partir de farinhas de quirera de arroz e de bandinha de feijão. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 2012; 1: 72-83.
[38]  Pai D A, Blake O A, Hamaker B R & Campanella O H. Importance of extensional rheological properties on fiber-enriched corn extrudates. Journal of Cereal Science, 2009; 50: 227-234.
[39]  Nascimento E M D G C D, Ascheri J L R, Carvalho C W P D & Galdeano M C. Benefícios e perigos do aproveitamento da casca de maracujá (Passiflora edulis) como ingrediente na produção de alimentos. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 2013; 72: 1-11.
[40]  Mariani M A. Análise físico-química e sensorial de biscoitos elaborados com farinha de arroz, farelo de arroz e farinha de soja como alternativa para pacientes celíacos. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 2010.
[41]  Giovanella C, Schlabitz C, Souza CFV de. Caracterização e aceitabilidade de biscoitos preparados com farinha sem glúten. Revista Brasileira de Tecnologia Agroindustrial, 2013; 7(1): 965-976.