Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(3), 191-200
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-7-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Dietary Ganglioside Intake and Serum Ganglioside Concentration among Indonesian Toddlers

Frieda Handayani Kawanto1, Bertram Fong2, Rebecca Cannan2, Fatima Safira Alatas1, Selly Mulyadi3, Yolin Marlisa3, Miftakh Nur Rahman3 and Agus Firmasyah1,

1Faculty of Medicine, Division of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Child Health, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

2Fonterra Research and Development Centre, Private Bag 11029, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand

3PT. Prodia Diacro Laboratories, Jl. Kramat Raya No. 150, Jakarta Pusat - 10430, Indonesia

Pub. Date: March 05, 2019

Cite this paper:
Frieda Handayani Kawanto, Bertram Fong, Rebecca Cannan, Fatima Safira Alatas, Selly Mulyadi, Yolin Marlisa, Miftakh Nur Rahman and Agus Firmasyah. Dietary Ganglioside Intake and Serum Ganglioside Concentration among Indonesian Toddlers. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019; 7(3):191-200. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-7-3-3

Abstract

Gangliosides are major components in the human brain. The incorporation of gangliosides into the developing human brain is rapid, increasing from the third trimester through to the first 4-5 years of life, coinciding with the neuronal and glial differentiation and maturation process. It is generally accepted that breast-fed infants consume higher levels of gangliosides than formula-fed infants. However, the dietary ganglioside intake status at the toddler age period is unclear, given that toddlers are still going through a rapid growth and learning phase. The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of the dietary ganglioside sources and intakes for a cross-section of Indonesian toddlers and to determine any correlation with their serum ganglioside concentrations. Toddlers (150) were recruited from the Pejaten, South Jakarta, region. The dietary ganglioside intake was determined from food intake data collected over 2 days using a food frequency questionnaire. The ganglioside levels in the food and the blood were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The average dietary ganglioside intake and the serum ganglioside content of Indonesian toddlers were 6.13 ± 0.56 mg/day and 13.2 ± 3.3 mg/L respectively. Growing-up milk powders contributed 71.8% of the daily total ganglioside intake, and major dietary ganglioside contributor. [1] No positive correlation was observed between the dietary ganglioside intake and the serum ganglioside concentration over the 2-day study period. Long term dietary and intervention studies are required to provide a clearer picture of the impact of dietary gangliosides on serum ganglioside levels.

Keywords:
ganglioside Indonesian toddler dietary intake

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