Journal of Finance and Economics
ISSN (Print): 2328-7284 ISSN (Online): 2328-7276 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfe Editor-in-chief: Suman Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Finance and Economics. 2022, 10(2), 43-46
DOI: 10.12691/jfe-10-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Modelling Income Inequality and Child Labour: Effect on Child Nutrition

Semiu Ayinla Alayande1, and Ankeli Uchechi. C2

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

2Federal Polytechnic Ede, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 11, 2022

Cite this paper:
Semiu Ayinla Alayande and Ankeli Uchechi. C. Modelling Income Inequality and Child Labour: Effect on Child Nutrition. Journal of Finance and Economics. 2022; 10(2):43-46. doi: 10.12691/jfe-10-2-2

Abstract

Childhood malnutrition is a real-life chronic problem and one of the global major public health challenges, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Income inequality causes socio-political unrest and it has been directly linked to a reduction in happiness level as well. The returns to capital are distributed unequally enough that some families still must send their children to work in order to sustain themselves. In this article, Augmented Dickey-fuller unit root test and Phillip Peron test are used to determine the existence of long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. There is a long run positive relationship between the Gini coefficient, unemployment rate and mortality rate. The model shows that education, real GDP, inflation and government growth in expenditure does not affect child labour directly.

Keywords:
income inequality child labour Gini co-efficient Augumented Dicket-fuller

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Beegle, K., De Weert, & J. Dercon, S, (2008). “Orphanhood and the Long-Run Impact on Children.” (Available at http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0001651/P2000Orphanhood_children_Sept2005.pdf).
 
[2]  Baland J. & Robinson J.A (2000). Is Child Labour Inefficient? Journal of Political Economy, 108(4).pp. 663-679.
 
[3]  Adegoke, D.O. (2013). Personal, Situational and Socio-Cultural Factors as Correlates Of Intimates Partner Abuse In Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 57-62.
 
[4]  Cramer, C. (2005). “Does inequality cause conflict?” Journal o International Development, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 397-412.
 
[5]  Barr, Talia & Kaushik Basu. (2009). “Children, Education, Labour and Land: In the Long Run and Short Run.” Journal of European Economic Association.
 
[6]  Alesina A. and Perotti, R. (1996). Income Distribution, Political Instability and Investment. (online). Dash.Havard.edu.
 
[7]  Basu and Van (BV: 1998). “The Economics of Child Labour.” American Economic Review, 88(3) June pp. 412-427.
 
[8]  Swinnerton and Rogers (SR: 1999)” The Economic of Child Labour Comment,” American Economic Review 89(5). pp 1382-85.
 
[9]  Ranjan K (2001). “An Economic Analysis of Child Labour.” Economics Letters 64.pp.99-105.
 
[10]  Dessy and Vencatachellum. (2001). Accounting for Cross Country Differences in Growth.” Working Paper.
 
[11]  Black M & Aboud F. (2011). Theoretical basis of responsive feeding among infants and young children in high and low income countries. Journal of Nutrition. 141: 490-94.
 
[12]  Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 369: 60-70.
 
[13]  UNICEF (UN Children’s Fund) (2012) Child Marriage: A Harmful Traditional Practice. A Statistical Exploration. New York: UNICEF.
 
[14]  Victora Cesar G, Adam Wagstaff, Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg, Davidson Gwatkin, Mariam Claeson, Jean-Pierre Habicht (2003). Applying an Equity Lens to Child Health and Mortality. PubMed. 362(9379): 233-41.
 
[15]  Aguero, J.M., Carter, M.R. and Woolard, I. (2009). The impact of unconditional cash transfers on nutrition: the South African Child Support Grant, Cape Town: SALDRU, University of Cape Town: South African Labour and Development Research Unit Working Paper No. 06/08.
 
[16]  Lawrence Aber J., Neil G. Bennett and Dalton C. Conley. (1997). The Effect of Poverty on Child Health and development. Annual review of public health. Vol. 18: 463-483.
 
[17]  Eric V. Edmonds and Caroline Theoharides (2020). Child Labor and Economic Development Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population.
 
[18]  UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) Children’s Report 2020.
 
[19]  Dwibedi, and Marjit. (2015). Relative Affluence and Child Labor - Explaining a Paradox. Centre for Studies in Social Sciences. Calcutta 28 August.
 
[20]  Francesco Burchi (2012). Whose education affects a child’s nutritional status? From parents’ to household’s education. Demographic Research. Volume 27, Article 23 Research Article.
 
[21]  CogillBruce. (2003). Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance. Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C.
 
[22]  Braveman, Paula, and Laura Gottlieb. (2014). The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. 1974). vol. 129: 19-31.
 
[23]  Toggero, P., Mangiaterra V., Bustreo F., & Rosati F. (2007). The health impact of child labor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data. Pub Med. Publications.
 
[24]  Awe A.A & Rufus Ojo O. (2012). “Determinants of Income Distribution in the Nigerian Economy: 1977-2005.” International Business and Management. Vol. 5(1). PP. 126-137.
 
[25]  Alayande S.A. (2018). Why Segregating Cointegration Tests? American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Vol. 6(4). Pg 121-125.