Journal of Finance and Economics
ISSN (Print): 2328-7284 ISSN (Online): 2328-7276 Website: Editor-in-chief: Suman Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020, 8(4), 171-182
DOI: 10.12691/jfe-8-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Identification and Analysis of Barriers to Employment for Educated Women in Afghanistan

Yelda Arib1,

1Department of Macro Economics, Lecturer at Faculty of Economics, Herat University, Herat, Afghanistan

Pub. Date: July 24, 2020

Cite this paper:
Yelda Arib. Identification and Analysis of Barriers to Employment for Educated Women in Afghanistan. Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020; 8(4):171-182. doi: 10.12691/jfe-8-4-3


Employment is one of the things that has always been of great importance in developed and developing countries. Considering the 50% share of women in the active population of each country, it is important to pay attention to employment in this sector. For this purpose, the present study aimed to recognize and analyze the barriers to the employment of educated women in Afghanistan. Initially, considering the various sources, barriers to employment of educated women in Afghanistan were identified and classified into different groups using factor analysis. Then, by filling out 437 questionnaires in Kabul, Herat, Balkh and Kandahar provinces, the most important barriers to the employment of educated women in Afghanistan were identified and analyzed using the Logit model. The results showed that variables such as the number of people with family income, age, education, inappropriate government policies, and insecurity in society, personal social factors, general culture, mentality, and personality are among the variables that affect the employment of educated women in Afghanistan. Also, by comparing weighted elasticities, comparing the 8 variables that influence the barriers to employment of educated women in Afghanistan, it is observed in the Logit model that the variable of personal social factors has the most importance on non-employment of educated women in Afghanistan. After this variable, respectively, are the policies of inappropriate government policies and the number of people with income in the family and the least important variables are age and education.

employment women factor analysis Logit Model Afghanistan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Azarbaijani, M. (2009). Gender Justice and Women’s Employment. Women's Strategic Studies, 12(46), 81-116. (In persian).
[2]  Safiri, Kh. (2003). Women's Employment in the Development of Job Satisfaction and the Type of Jobs, Women's Articles Collection; Participation and planning for sustainable development, (Tehran: Olive Leaf), 167-168. (In persian).
[3]  Alaoldin, P. and Razavi, M.R. (2004). The situation of women's participation and employment in Iran. Social Welfare, 3(12), 132-157. (In persian).
[4]  Azizi, F. (2017). Women's employment in cities, its problems and sufferings (a case study of the city of Rorcla in India). Journal of Economic Research and Analysis, 31, 81-87. (In persian).
[5]  Hajiani, H. (2006). A Study of Women's Employment in Marriage, Behnami Publications, Tehran. (In persian).
[6]  Sadi, H.A., Yaghoubi Farahani, A., Zoleikhaei Sayyar, L. and Ghahremani, F. (2017). Analysis of barriers and restrictions on employment of rural women (Case study: Tuyserkan city). Journal of Rural Research and Planning. 6(1), 35-48. (In persian).
[7]  Afghanistan Statistics Office Report, 2018. (In persian).
[8]  Kar, M. (1994). Women in the Iranian labor market. Roshangaran Publications, Tehran. (In persian).
[9]  Amini, A.R. and Ghanizadeh, F. (2010). An Analysis of Influencial Factors on Women’s Employment: A Case Study of Iran’s manufacturing. Journal of economics and modelling, 1(2), 187-212. (In persian).
[10]  Amini, A.R. (2004). Gender approach to labor market imbalances, women's research. Quarterly Journal of the Center for Women's Studies and Research, 2 (1), 134. (In persian).
[11]  Zaferanchi, L.S. (2009). Investigating the situation of women's employment in Iran, the Center for Women's Affairs and the Family of the Presidential Institution. (In persian).
[12]  Asadzadeh, A., Mirani, N., Ghazi khani, F., Esmaeil darjani, N. and Honardoust, A. (2017). Investigating the role of employment and education of women on economic growth in Iran: Gravitational search algorithm and Firefly algorithm approach. Women in development and politics, 15(3), 359-381. (In persian).
[13]  Macpherson, M. & Brue, M. (2003). Labor market discrimination. contemporary labor economics.
[14]  Alavizadeh, S., Shamsoldini, A. and Hoseini, F. (2016). Investigating and analyzing the factors that prevent the employment of rural women in Kashmir. Special letter for women and society, 7, 195-218. (In persian).
[15]  Mahmoodian, H. (2003). Investigating the participation of women in the labor force in the provinces in the years 55, 65 and 75. Social Sciences Letter, 21, 189-218. (In persian).
[16]  Mosavi khamene, M. (1999). Women in the Development Process, M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University. (In persian).
[17]  Elmi, Z. (2004). Macroeconomic and labor market policies in Iran. women Studies, 2(2), 17-37. (In persian).
[18]  Farzi, Z. and Ranjbar, M. (2006). Women in Iranian Laws and Regulations, Massoud Ranjbar and Zohreh Farzi Publications, Tehran. (In persian).
[19]  Yazdkhasti, B. and Ahmadi, V. (2007). Investigating the status of women's activity and employment in Iran with emphasis on the 2006 census. Journal of Women's Studies, 1(3), 9-32. (In persian).
[20]  Jamshidi, M., Jamshidi, A.R. and Jamshidi, F. (2016). Prioritization of the most important employment barriers for the rural women in Chardavol Township. Journal of Geography and Environment Studies, 5(19), 117-128. (In persian).
[21]  Hadian, E. and Heidarpour, A. (1999). Economic development and the share of women in the labor force. Case of Iran 1963-1996. Population Quarterly, 27 and 28, 20-30. (In persian).
[22]  Rezaei, Z. (2014). Factors Preventing Women's Employment in Afghanistan (Case Study: Herat Province). Undergraduate Project, University of Herat. (In persian).
[23]  Razzaq, H. (2008). The employment situation of women in Afghanistan. Available at (In persian).
[24]  Savari, M., Shabanali fomi, H. and Sharifzadeh, M.Sh. (2017). Barriers to the development of rural women's employment in handicrafts in Divandere. Quarterly Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development, 6(3), 17-36. (In persian).
[25]  Sharifi, Z., Iravani, H. and Daneshvar ameri, Zh. (2015). Analysis of the Promoter and Preventive Factors on Development of Rural Women’s Occupation in Najaf Abad City, 6(1), 1-20. (In persian).
[26]  Esmaeili, S. (2015). Investigating the social and cultural barriers of women's employment in the city of Ilam and providing solutions. Master Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University. (In persian).
[27]  Madani, S. and Nejadfallah, M. (2014). Investigating the impact of women's employment on the family. Behavioral Sciences, 6(20). 153-173. (In persian).
[28]  Arabmazar, A., Alipour, M.S. and zareniakoki, Y. (2014). Analysis of socio-economic factors affecting women's employment in Iran. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Modeling, 4(17,18), 75-91. (In persian).
[29]  Ejaz, M. (2011). The determinants of female labor force participation in Pakistan: An instrumental variable approach, center for research in economics and business, labor school of economics.Germany.
[30]  Ahirrao, J., & Sadavarte, M.N. (2010). Social & financial constraints of rural women entrepreneurs:A case study of Jalna District in Maharashtra, International Referred Research Journal.
[31]  Richard, E. & Wiliam, P.B. (2009). Labor force participation of women in rural and urban China. Rural Sociology, 56 (1), 1-21.
[32]  Coen- Pirani, D., Leon, A., & Lugauer, S. (2009). The effect of household appliance on female labor force participation: evidence from micro data. Journal of labor economics, 17(3), 503-513.
[33]  Evans, M.D.R. & Kelley, J. (2008). Trends in womens labor force participation in Australia: 1984-2002. Social Science Research, 37(1), 287-310.
[34]  Lee, B., Jang, S., & Sarkar, J. (2008). Woman's labor force participation and marriage: The case of Korea. Journal of Asian Economics, 19(2), 138-154.
[35]  Zhang, Y., Hannum, E. & Wang, M. (2008). Gender-based employment and income differences in urban China: Considering the Contributions of marriage and parenthood. Social force
[36]  Kalantari, kh. (1999). Data processing and analysis in socio-economic research using SPSS software. Sharif, Tehran. (In persian).
[37]  Gojarati, D. (1999). Fundamentals of Econometrics. Translation: Hamid Abrishami. Tehran University Press. Volume II. (In persian).
[38]  Train K. (1986). Qualitative choice analysis: Theory, econometrics and an application to automobile demand. MIT Press.
[39]  Hensher D.A., & Johnson L.W. (1981). Applied discrete-choice modeling. John Wiley and Sons.
[40]  Whistler D. (2009). An Hntroductory Guide to SHAZAM. www. Logit Results.