Journal of Embedded Systems
ISSN (Print): 2376-7987 ISSN (Online): 2376-7979 Website: Editor-in-chief: Naima kaabouch
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Embedded Systems. 2017, 4(1), 7-12
DOI: 10.12691/jes-4-1-2
Open AccessArticle

A Simplified Software Energy Consumption Estimation for Embedded System

V.A. Kulkarni1, and G.R. Udupi1

1E&C Engineering, GIT, Belgavi, India

Pub. Date: July 03, 2017

Cite this paper:
V.A. Kulkarni and G.R. Udupi. A Simplified Software Energy Consumption Estimation for Embedded System. Journal of Embedded Systems. 2017; 4(1):7-12. doi: 10.12691/jes-4-1-2


Software energy in an embedded system is the energy consumed while running the software. As the embedded system is expected to execute the task repeatedly, software energy is the major component in total energy consumption of an embedded system. For battery powered embedded applications, energy consumption estimation is very important. Different methods are available for software energy estimation. A simple method of software energy estimation with good accuracy is presented in this paper. Results are validated with micro benchmark programs. Accuracy of 2.01% to -5.83% is obtained for different micro benchmark programs. Also equation for instructions using immediate data is developed. R2 value of 0.9 is obtained.

current measurement curve fitting embedded software energy consumption energy estimation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Tiwari, S. Malik, and A. Wolfe, “Power analysis of embedded Software: A first step towards software power minimization,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Systems, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 437-445, Dec. 1994.
[2]  Naehyuck Chang, Kwanho Kim, and Hyung Gyu Lee, “Cycle-Accurate Energy Measurement and Characterization with a Case Study of the ARM7TDMI”, IEEE Trans. VLSI Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, April 2002, pp. 146-154.
[3]  Mostafa Bazzaz, Mohammad Salehi and Alireza Ejlali, “An Accurate Instruction-Level Energy Estimation Model and Tool for Embedded Systems”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement, VOL. 62, NO. 7, JULY 2013, pp. 1927-1934.
[4]  Wang, Wei and Zwolinski, Mark (2014) “An improved instruction-level power model for ARM11 microprocessor”. In, High Performance Energy Efficient Embedded Systems (HIP3ES), Berlin, DE, 23 Jan 2013.
[5]  Lubomir Bogdanov, “Look-up Table-Based Microprocessor Energy Model”, International Scientific Conference on Engineering, Technologies and Systems TECHSYS 2016, Technical University – Sofia, Plovdiv branch, 26 – 28 May 2016, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
[6]  Momcilo V. Krunic, Miroslav V. Popovic, Vlado M. Krunic, Nenad B. Cetic, “Energy Consumption Estimation for Embedded Applications”, ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA, ISSN 1392-1215, VOL. 22, NO. 3, 2016, pp. 44-49.
[7]  V.A.Kulkarni and Dr. G.R.Udupi, “A Simplified Method for Instruction Level Energy Estimation for Embedded System”, EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2017.
[8]  V.A.Kulkarni and Dr. G.R.Udupi, “Instruction Level Power Consumption Estimation – Issues and Review”, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), Vol.4, Issue 2, Feb. 2017, pp 6776-6781.
[9]  Nikolaos Kavvadias, Periklis Neofotistos, Spiridon Nikolaidis, C. A. Kosmatopoulos, and Theodore Laopoulos, “Measurements Analysis of the Software-Related Power Consumption in Microprocessors”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004, pp. 1106-1112.
[10]  V. Konstantakos, A. Chatzigeorgiou, S. Nikolaidis, T. Laopoulos, “Energy consumption estimation in embedded systems”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement, VOL. 57, NO. 4, APRIL 2008 pp. 797-804.
[11]  Theodore Laopoulos, Periklis Neofotistos, C. A. Kosmatopoulos, and Spiridon Nikolaidis, “Measurement of Current Variations for the Estimation of Software-Related Power Consumption”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement, VOL. 52, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003, pp. 1206-1212.
[12]  N. Kavvadias, P. Neofotistos, S. Nikolaidis, K. Kosmatopoulos, and T. Laopoulos, “Measurements analysis of the software-related power consumption of microprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1106-1112, Aug. 2004.
[13]  Cortex-M4 Devices, Generic User Guide, ARM Limited, 2010.
[14]  F. N. Najm, “A Survey of Power Estimation Techniques in VLSI Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems, vol.2, pp. 446-455, 1994.
[15]  T. Chou and K. Roy, “Accurate Estimation of Power Dissipation in CMOS Sequential Circuits,” IEEE Transaction VLSI Systems, vol. 4, pp. 369-380, September 1996.