Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
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Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2018, 6(4), 126-137
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-6-4-2
Open AccessArticle

Elemental Concentrations and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Air Particulates from two Functional Sites in the Metropolitan City of Ibadan, Nigeria

Tijani Saliu1, Oluyemi E. Ayodele1, , Olabanji I. Oluremi1 and Adeniji A. Oluwole1

1Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Pub. Date: September 28, 2018

Cite this paper:
Tijani Saliu, Oluyemi E. Ayodele, Olabanji I. Oluremi and Adeniji A. Oluwole. Elemental Concentrations and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Air Particulates from two Functional Sites in the Metropolitan City of Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2018; 6(4):126-137. doi: 10.12691/jephh-6-4-2

Abstract

Ambient concentrations of size-segregated fractions of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were investigated for chemical compositions and pollution sources at two functional receptor sites (industrial and residential areas) in the metropolitan city of Ibadan, Nigeria between March 2014 and February, 2015. Seventy four fractions (37 each) were collected on quartz filter media using a low volume Gent sampler equipped with double-staged stacked filter unit. Elemental characterizations of both fractions were carried out using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique in an external ion beam analysis set-up. Elements such as K, Na, P, S and Cl which were evidences of burning activities correlated well in the PM2.5, while the relationship observed between Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe suggested crustal material source for the elements in the PM10-2.5. Results of the seasalt estimation of some naturally occurring elements (Na, K, Ca and S) in the ambient air suggested their sources in Ibadan as either of crustal or anthropogenic. Source apportionment study with Positive Matrix Fractionalisation (PMF) receptor model identified five sources with stable profiles in PM2.5; tail pipe/industrial emissions (48.5%), suspended road dust (13.1%), ferrous metal smelting (34.6%), fine brake (0%), and vegetative/biomass burning (3.8%). Six were in PM2.5-10. They are petroleum products combustion plus smelting (9.3%), biomass burning (5.2%), exhaust and non-exhaust mobile (0%), airborne/re-suspended soil (23.4%), fuel oil combustion (24.5%), and municipal incineration plus solid waste combustion (37.6%). This study resolved high values for anthropogenic vehicular emission and solid waste burning, thus call for routine monitoring by regulatory agencies and stringent abatement options to control the possible untold hazards on health and environment.

Keywords:
ambient fractions PIXE source apportionment

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