Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2018, 6(1), 26-30
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-6-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Health Hazards of Excessive Light and Utilization of Safety Measures among Small Scale Welders in Nigeria

L. S. Sadiq1, , A. Sabo1, K. Ibrahim1 and A. Abdulsamad1

1Department of Environmental Management Technology, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria

Pub. Date: February 02, 2018

Cite this paper:
L. S. Sadiq, A. Sabo, K. Ibrahim and A. Abdulsamad. Health Hazards of Excessive Light and Utilization of Safety Measures among Small Scale Welders in Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2018; 6(1):26-30. doi: 10.12691/jephh-6-1-4


Welding is associated with various occupational hazards, such as high-intensity lights, which results in severe consequences on health, particularly on visual acuity of workers performing their task. This study assessed the impact of excessive light on the health of welders and their use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Cross-sectional study was conducted among 80 welders that were randomly selected in Yalwa and Gwallameji districts of Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria using a validated self-administered questionnaire and the Snellen’s chart for the data collection. The study showed that most of the respondents scored below average 20/20 (1.0) in the Snellen’s chart test. Majority of the respondents (60%) never used PPE. The most reported health symptoms by more than half of the respondents were eyes irritation, watery eyes and eye strain. There was a positive correlation for age, and year of experience with vision acuity test (p < 0.005 and <0.001 respectively). An inverse relationship was recorded for the use of PPE and reported health symptoms (p <0.05). The study revealed that welders were slightly experiencing ocular disorders. Thus, welders should be encouraged to the use of PPE in their work in order to avert these health impacts.

welding health impacts light pollution personal protective equipment

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Rajkhowa, R., (2014) Light Pollution and Impact of Light Pollution. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). Vol. 3 (10).
[2]  Fich, M., Dahl, H., Fledelius, H., & Tinning, S. (1993). Maculopathy caused by welding arcs. Acta ophthalmologica, 71(3), 402-404.
[3]  Voke, J. (1999). Radiation effect on the eye - Ocular effect of ultraviolet radiation. Optometry 37-40
[4]  Magnavita, N. (2002). Photoretinitis: an underestimated occupational injury? Journal of occupational Medicine. 52: 2233-225.
[5]  Narda, R., Magnavita, N., Sacco, A. (1990). Affection oculars nei saldatori: uno studio longitudinale. Med. Lav. 81 (5): 399-409.
[6]  Norm, M., Frank, C., (1991). Long-term changes in the outer part of the eye in welders. Prevalence of spheroid degeneration, pinguecula, pterygium, and corneal cicatrices. Acta Ophthalmol Copenh 69 (3): 382-386.
[7]  Okoye, O. I., Umeh, E. (2002). Eye health of Industrial workers in Southeastern Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine. 21 (2): 132-137.
[8]  Creswell, W. J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. (P. A. Smith, C. Robb, & M. Buchholtz, Eds.), Educational Research (4th ed., Vol. 4). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.
[9]  Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London; Routledge: Psychology Press.
[10]  Sabitu, K., Iliyasu, Z., & Dauda, M. M. (2009). Awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures among welders in Kaduna metropolis, Northern Nigeria. Annals of African medicine, 8(1), 46.
[11]  Davies, K. G., Asana, U., Nku, C. O., & Osim, E. E. (2007). Ocular effects of chronic exposure to welding light on calabar welders. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 22 (1-2).
[12]  Sithole, H. L., Oduntan, O. A., & Oriowo, M. O. (2009). Eye protection practices and symptoms among welders in the Limpopo Province of South Africa+. African Vision and Eye Health, 68(3), 130-136. International Dark-Sky Association. (2009). IDA mission and goals. Retrieved July 24, 2016, from
[13]  Zgambo, J. (2015). Occupational Hazards and Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Small Scale Welders in Lusaka, Zambia (Master's thesis, The University of Bergen).Littlejohn, K. (2008). Sleep deprivation can spell big trouble. Builder, Retrieved September 4, 2016, from,2000063986,339291619,00.htm.
[14]  Gos, R., Stephien, J., Horowski, P. (1984). State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Beltachow. Medycyna pracy 35(2) 133-136
[15]  Chauhan, A., Anand, T, Kishore, J., Danielsen, T. E. & Ingle, G. K. (2014) Occupational hazard exposure and general health profile of welders in rural Delhi. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 18(1) 21-26.