Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017, 5(3), 117-123
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-5-3-7
Open AccessArticle

An Apportionment of Arsenic and Iron Contamination of Tube-well Groundwater with Possible Health Risk in Bangladesh

Ram Proshad1, , Tapos Kormoker2, Md. Saiful Islam1, Bidhan Chandra Saha3, Md. Ripon Hossain4, Mahamud Hasan Prince5 and Mohammed Mahmud Khan6

1Department of Soil Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

2Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

3Department of Agriculture Studies, Muktizoddha Memorial College, Mohipur Kalapara, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

4Department of Entomology, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

5Department of Horticulture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

6Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Government of the People¡¯s Republic of Bangladesh

Pub. Date: December 15, 2017

Cite this paper:
Ram Proshad, Tapos Kormoker, Md. Saiful Islam, Bidhan Chandra Saha, Md. Ripon Hossain, Mahamud Hasan Prince and Mohammed Mahmud Khan. An Apportionment of Arsenic and Iron Contamination of Tube-well Groundwater with Possible Health Risk in Bangladesh. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017; 5(3):117-123. doi: 10.12691/jephh-5-3-7


Underground tube-well water is one of the most important sources of pure drinking water in the world. Drinking water contamination with heavy metals (iron and arsenic) is a burning question nowadays for public health and also environmental perspectives. Our present task is for determination of iron and arsenic concentration in ground tube-well with possible health risk in Bangladesh. The water samples were collected from Tangail district of Bangladesh during January 2017. Iron and arsenic concentration were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Iron concentration ranged from 4.483 to 20.698 mg/l where arsenic concentration was obtained from <0.001 to 0.01969 mg/l in the studied samples. Arsenic concentration for most of the samples and all iron samples were higher than the maximum permissible level of World Health Organization due to drinking these water. Iron is a heavy metal may cause serious health risk to study area people. In Bangladesh, permissible limit of iron is 0.3-1.0 mg/l, whereas WHO standard level is 0.3 mg/l. All the samples were exceeded the standard levels of iron. A range of 20 to 60 times higher iron concentration reported than permissible limits in tube-well water of the study area. These higher iron concentrations found in the study area may be harmful to those people who are consuming the water from these sources on regular basis and they may pose a high health risk. Thus, to overcome this problem, the consumers should not drink groundwater containing higher amounts of iron, and they should find other sources or replace the tube-well or treat the water for drinking and other domestic and household purposes.

arsenic iron tube-well water health risk Bangladesh

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 4


[1]  Azad, A.K., "Impacts of Farakka Barrage on surface water resources in Bangladesh, World Environment Day, Report of Department of Environment, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh". pp: 40-43. 2003.
[2]  Gunatilaka, A., "Groundwater woes of Asia". Asian Water, January/February count. 2005.
[3]  Talukder, S.A., Chatterjee, A., Zheng , J., Kosmus, W., "Studies of Drinking Water Quality and Arsenic Calamity in Groundwater of Bangladesh". Proceedings of the International Conference on Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Bangladesh: Causes, Effects and Remedies, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 1998.
[4]  Ahmad, M.A., Kahlown, A., Tahir, H., Rashid., "Arsenic an Emerging Issue, Experiences from Pakistan". 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientiane, Lao PDR. 2004.
[5]  Baig, J.A., Kazi, T.G., Shah, A.Q., Afridi, H.I., Nida, S.K., Kolachi, F., Kandhro, G., "Evaluation of Toxic Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Male Subjects Through Drinking Water in Southern Sindh Pakistan". 2009.
[6]  Anonymous., "Water: A millennial priority". The Acme Agrovat and Beverage Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2004.
[7]  Luo, W., Lu, Y., Giesy, J.P., Wang, T., Shi, Y., "Effects of land use on concentrations of metals in surface soils and ecological risk around Guanting Reservoir, China". Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29: 459-471. 2007.
[8]  WHO., "Arsenic compounds Environmental Health Criteria". 2nd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2001.
[9]  Rukshana, F., Haque, M.N., Mazumder, M.H., Chowdhury, S.R., Ahmed, G.U., Quadir, M.E., "Arsenic investigation of drinking water in some area of Faridpur district". Tech. Journal, 9. 99-107. 2002.
[10]  WARPO (Water Resource Planning Organization)., "Main report, v.2, National Water Management Plan Project". Ministry of Water Resource, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. 2000.
[11]  Finkelman, R.B., Orem, W., "Health Impacts of Coal and Coal use: Possible solutions". International Journal of Coal Geology, 50. 425-443. 2002.
[12]  Mandal, B.K., Suzuki, K.T., "Arsenic round the world: a review, Talanta". 58. 201-235. 2002.
[13]  Khan, A.W., "Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effect on human health with particular reference to Bangladesh". Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 16. 65-73. 1997.
[14]  WHO., "guidelines for drinking-water quality". Vol 2, 2nd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization. 1996.
[15]  United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)., "Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh". (Internet communication, 14 December 1999, available at 1999.
[16]  Daily Star Report., "8500 Arsenic Patients Detected in Country". The Daily Star, A national daily newspaper of Bangladesh, 11 September. 2000.
[17]  Elinder, C.G., "Handbook on the technology of metals". V. 2, Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp: 276-297. 1986.
[18]  Bader, J.S., "Ground-water contamination, The United State of America and Puerto Rica, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington DC, USA". pp: 103. 1973.
[19]  Meyer, C.F., "Polluted ground: Some causes, effects, controls, and monitoring". Rept. EPA-600/4-73-0016, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA, pp: 282. 1973.
[20]  Ahmed, M.F., Rahman, M.M., "Water supply and sanitation, Specific groundwater treatment process". Centre for water supply and waste management, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Section 19.3, pp: 371-405. 2000.
[21]  APHA (American Public Health Association)., "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater". 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA. 1998.
[22]  USEPA., "Integrated risk information system: arsenic, inorganic. CASRN". 7440-38-2. 1998.
[23]  USEPA., "Risk-based Concentration Table US Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC/Philadelphia, PA". 2000.
[24]  Moschandreas, D.J., Karuchit, S., Berry, M.R., O'Rourke, M.K., "Exposure apportionment: ranking food items by their contribution to dietary exposure". Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 12. 233-243. 2002.
[25]  ATSDR., "Toxicology profile for arsenic. Atlanta, Georgia, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, US Department of Health and Human Services". TP-92/02. 2000.
[26]  WHO., "Guidelines for drinking-water quality". 3rd ed. WHO, Geneva PCRWR (2002-2003) (Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources). Arsenic and health effects. 2004.
[27]  Yoshida, T., Yamauchi, H., Fan, S.G., "Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 198. 243-252. 2004.
[28]  Chen, C.J., Chen, C.W., Wu, M.M., "Arsenic and cancer". Lancet, 1. 414-415. 1988.
[29]  Hopenhayn-Rich, C., Biggs, M.L., Smith, A.H., "Lung and kidney cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Cordoba, Argentina". International Journal of Epidemiology, 27. 561-569. 1998.
[30]  Smith, A.H., "Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water". Environmental Health Perspectives, 97. 259-257. 1992.