Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017, 5(1), 22-29
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-5-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Physicochemical Analysis of Gas Flaring Impact on the Environment of Host Communities in the Niger-delta

Uyigue L1, and Enujekwu F. M.1

1Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 11, 2017

Cite this paper:
Uyigue L and Enujekwu F. M.. Physicochemical Analysis of Gas Flaring Impact on the Environment of Host Communities in the Niger-delta. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017; 5(1):22-29. doi: 10.12691/jephh-5-1-4

Abstract

This paper is focused on the application of physical, chemical and meteorological parameters to assessing the level of impacts on environments exposed to gas flaring. Three locations, P, Q and R, where gas flaring activities are ongoing in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria were selected for this study. Another location (S) with no gas flaring activity was used as control. Soil, rain-water and air samples were collected from study locations for the purpose of analysis. The results from the physicochemical parameters measurements showed that pH of soil and rain-water samples collected at set radial distances of 20, 50 and 100 m from flare points were generally acidic, hence indicating the presence of acid rains and acid soils around the flare locations. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Fe etc.) contaminations of the soil and rain-water samples were also evident, and the distribution followed similar trends as that of pH. Air quality parameters (such as SO2, NO2, H2S, CO, VOC, SPM etc.) also showed higher concentration at test distances near the flare point and lower values at distances farther away from flare point. Based on these findings, it was observed that no safe human activity can take place at radial distances < 2 km away from the flare point. This is adduced to the prevalent abnormal air temperature; poor air quality, soil and rain-water acidity which characterized the selected gas flare locations.

Keywords:
gas flaring physicochemical parameters natural gas pollution impact analysis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  AGOC (2003). Gas flaring, oil companies and politics in Nigeria. Alexander’s Gas and Oil Connections (AGOC) Publications, 6 (20), 15-16.
 
[2]  World Bank (2005). Defining an Environmental Development Strategy for the Niger Delta. Washington DC: World Bank.
 
[3]  Abdulkareem, A. S., Odigure J. O. and Abenege, S. (2009). Predictive model for pollutant dispersion from gas flaring: A case study of oil producing area of Nigeria. Energy Sources (Part A), 31(12), 1004-1015.
 
[4]  Aghalino, S. O. (2009). Gas flaring, environmental pollution and abatement measures in Nigeria, 1969 - 2001. Journal of sustainable development in Africa, 11(4), 219-238.
 
[5]  NDES (1996). Socio-Economic Characteristics, Volume 1. Niger-Delta Environmental Survey, Lagos.
 
[6]  Ekpoh, I. J. and Obia, A. E. (2010). The role of gas flaring in the rapid corrosionof zinc roofs in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 30(4): 347-352.
 
[7]  Sonibare, J. A. and Akeredolu, F. A. (2004). A review of the usefulness of gas flares in air pollution control. Management of environmental quality: An international journal, 15(6): 574-583.
 
[8]  Odjugo, P. A. O. and Osemwenkhae, E. J. (2009). Natural gas flaring affects microclimate and reduces maize (zea mays) yield. International journal of agriculture and biology, 11: 408-412.
 
[9]  Nwankwo, C. and Ogagarue, D. (2011). Effects of gas flaring on surface and ground waters in Delta State Nigeria. Journal of geology and mining research, 3(5): 131-136
 
[10]  Ajugwo, A. O. (2013). Negative effects of gas flaring: The Nigerian Experience. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Human Health. 1(1), 6-8.
 
[11]  Ubani, E. C. and Onyejekwe, I. M. (2013). Environmental impact analyses of gas flaring in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 4(2), 246-252.
 
[12]  Onuoma, O. F., Alex, O. I., Olawale, O. O. Adelanmi, A A. (2015). The environmental implication of gas flaring in Sapele community of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering. 3(5), 56-61.
 
[13]  Nwaugo, V. O., Onyeagba R. A. and Nwahcukwu, N. C. (2006). Effect of gas flaring on soil microbial spectrum in parts of Niger-Delta area of southern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5 (19), 1824-1826.
 
[14]  NEPA (2012). Report on Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in the Kingston Metropolitan Area, National Environment and Planning Agency, Jamaica.
 
[15]  DPR (1991). Environmental guidelines and standards of the petroleum industry (EGASPIN). Nigeria Ministry of Petroleum Resources, Lagos. 35-76.
 
[16]  FEPA (1991). Guidelines and standard for environmental pollution control in Nigeria. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Nigeria. 61-63.
 
[17]  WHO/WMO (1971). Air monitoring programme designed for urban and industrial areas published for Global Environmental Monitoring System.