Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016, 4(3), 60-65
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-4-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Soil Contamination with Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Residential Areas Sited Close to Fuel Filling Stations in Ibadan Metropolis

Emmanuel. O. Olukoya1, , Godson R. E. E. Ana2 and Elizabeth O. Oloruntoba2

1Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University Okada, P.M.B. 001, Edo State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 07, 2016

Cite this paper:
Emmanuel. O. Olukoya, Godson R. E. E. Ana and Elizabeth O. Oloruntoba. Assessment of Soil Contamination with Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Residential Areas Sited Close to Fuel Filling Stations in Ibadan Metropolis. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016; 4(3):60-65. doi: 10.12691/jephh-4-3-1


The study aimed to assess soil contamination with mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in residential areas situated close to (1-20m range) fuel filling stations in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The study involved a laboratory based analysis of soil samples collected in the neighbourhood of five fuel filling stations systematically selected during the study. Two local government areas were randomly selected for the study, they were split into five natural clusters and soil samples were purposively collected from the neighbourhood of one fueling station per cluster. Topsoil (0 – 15cm deep) and subsoil (15 – 30cm deep) samples were collected at 5m, 10m, and 20m intervals away from the fuel filling stations. Samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, lead, and chromium using standard methods. Results were compared with Canadian and United Kingdom standards. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and were compared with the Canadian (monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) soil quality guideline limit for human health and the UK heavy metal guideline limit for soil in residential areas. Apart from xylene, the mean concentration of benzene, toluene, and ethyl-benzene were approximately 600 times higher than the Canadian limit both for topsoil and subsoil. Fortunately, mean concentrations of lead and chromium in all soil samples were insignificant compared with the UK limit. The study showed that there is contamination of the soil in the study area with some monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons namely benzene, toluene, and ethyl-benzene while there are no potential threats with regards to heavy metal contamination.

soil contamination fueling station hydrocarbons heavy metals guideline limit

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Adu A.A., “An Assessment of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution by Various Allied Artisans in Automobile, Welding Workshop and Petrol Station in Lagos State, Nigeria,” Science Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, ISSN: 2276 – 7495, Vol. 2012.
[2]  Binggan Wei and Linsheng Yang,“A Review of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils, Urban Road Dusts, and Agricultural Soils from China,” Microchemical Journal, 94(2010), 99-107.
[3]  E.G. Ameh, “A Preliminary Assessment of Soil Samples around a Filling Station in Diobu, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria,” Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 6(2): 57-65,2014.
[4]  Emmanuel A., Cobbina S.J., Adomako D., Duwiejuah A.B., and Asare W., “Assessment of heavy metals concentration in soils around oil filling and service stations in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana,” African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 8(4), pp. 256-266, 2014.
[5]  G.A. Plaza., J. Wypych, C. Berry, and R.L. Brigmon, “Utilization of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons individually and in mixture by bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated soil,” World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2006.
[6]  H. U. Nwosu, I. N. Nwachukwu, S. O. T. Ogaji, and S. D. Probert, “Local Involvement in Harnessing Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Nigeria,” Applied Energy, Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 1274-1287, 2006.
[7]  Ilorin Info, “Taming indiscriminate siting of petrol stations in Ilorin”., 2015. [Accessed January, 2016].
[8]  Laurent Fourchard,“Understanding slum: case studies for the global report 2003, the case of Ibadan, Nigeria,”, 2003.
[9]  M.S. Dauda and Odoh R.,“Heavy metals assessment of soil in the vicinity of fuel filling station in some selected local government areas of Benue State, Nigeria,” Pelagia Research Library, Der Chemica Sinica, 2012, 3(5): 1329-1336.
[10]  Mshelia A.M., John Abdullahi, and Emmanuel D.D.,“Environmental Effects of Petrol Stations at Close Proximity to Residential Buildings in Maiduguri and Jere, Borno State, Nigeria,” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 20, Issue 4, Ver. IV, pp 01-08. 2015.
[11]  National Population Commission (NPC), 2006 Population and Housing Census, “Population distribution by Sex, State, LGA, and Senatorial district”, [Accessed 18th January, 2016].
[12]  Osuji L.C. and Nwoye Iruka,“An appraisal of the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on soil fertility: the Owaza experience,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol.2 (7), pp. 318-324, 2007.
[13]  Pedersen K., Martin P., and Antoine V.H.,“Environmental impact assessment of petrol usage,” Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade, 12-14, DK-8200, Aarhus N., Denmark, 2003.
[14]  S. Ahmed, A.S. AbdulRahman, A.S. Kovo, S. Ibrahim, E.O. Okoro, and A.A. Agbo,“Health, Risk, and Safety of Petrol Stations in Minna Town. An Overview,” World Applied Sciences Journal, 32(4): 665-660, 2014.
[15]  S. Brown, R.L. Chaney, J.G. Hallfrisch, and Qi Xue,“Effects of Biosolids Processing on Lead Bioavailability in an Urban Soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 32: 100-108.
[16]  Ukoli M.K., “Environmental factors in the management of oil and gas industry in Nigeria,”, 2008. [Accessed November, 2015].
[17]  V. Mudgal, N. Madaan, A. Mudgal, R.B. Singh, and S. Mishra, “Effects of Toxic Metals on Human Health,” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 3, 94-99.
[18]  Zublena J.P. and Cook M.G., “Pollutants in groundwater: Health effects”. Soil facts (North Carolina Extension Service Publication No. AG-439-14), (1997).