Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2015, 3(1), 18-23
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-3-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Crude Anthocyanin Extract (CAE) from Ballatinao Black Rice Reduces Acute Lead Toxicity in Daphnia magna

Kevin Austin L. Ona1 and Paul Mark B. Medina2,

1College of Medicine, University of the Philippines – Manila, Philippines

2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines – Manila, Philippines

Pub. Date: April 01, 2015

Cite this paper:
Kevin Austin L. Ona and Paul Mark B. Medina. Crude Anthocyanin Extract (CAE) from Ballatinao Black Rice Reduces Acute Lead Toxicity in Daphnia magna. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2015; 3(1):18-23. doi: 10.12691/jephh-3-1-4

Abstract

Lead commonly contaminates water systems and causes acute and chronic toxicity, and indirectly produces ROS causing oxidative stress, to organisms. In response, organisms produce antioxidant enzymes for protection from oxidative stress, and uptake antioxidants in the environment. Ballatinao black rice is rich in antioxidants, particularly anthocyanins, and this study examined the effect of the Crude Anthocyanin Extract (CAE) of Ballatinao black rice on the acute lead toxicity to Daphnia magna through acute toxicity assays. D. magna were exposed to 10, 15 and 20 ug/mL concentrations of CAE for 24-hours with and without 4.0 mg/L lead nitrate. Number of deaths were recorded each hour for 24 hours. Three additional treatment strategies of the same parameters were also designed. Heartbeat counts in relation to lead toxicity were also measured. A significant increase in D. magna survival (α=.01) was observed when exposed to increasing CAE concentrations both in untreated and lead-treated set-ups. Variations in pre- and post-exposure treatments to CAE and lead were also performed and found to be insignificant. Heartbeat counts during the toxicity assays dropped in the first hour and normalized at 12- and 24-hour time points. The study demonstrated that Ballatinao black rice CAE can reduce the toxic effects of lead exposure to Daphnia magna.

Keywords:
Ballatinao black rice anthocyanin acute lead toxicity daphnia magna heartbeat count

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Cooper, N.L., Bidwell, J.R., Kumar, A., “Toxicity of Copper, Lead, and Zinc Mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia carinata,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72. 1523-28. 2009.
 
[2]  Berglind, R., Dave, G., Sjobeck, M., “The Effects of Lead on δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity, Growth, Hemoglobin Content, and Reproduction in Daphnia magna,” Ecotox Environ Safe, 9. 216-29. 1985.
 
[3]  Forstner, U., Wittman, G.T.W., Metal Pollution in the Environment, Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, 1979.
 
[4]  Luschak, V.I., “Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress in Aquatic Animals,” Aquat Toxicol, 101. 13-30. 2011.
 
[5]  Kim, S.H., Kim, S.J., Lee, J.S., Lee, Y.M., “Acute Effects of Heavy Metals on the Expression of Glutathione-related Antioxidant Genes in the Marine Ciliate Euplotes crassus,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014.
 
[6]  Tananuwong, K., Tewaruth, W., “Extraction and Application of Antioxidants from Black Glutinuous Rice,” Food Science and Technology, 43. 476-81. 2010
 
[7]  Yawadio, R., Tanimori, S., Morita, N., “Identification of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Pigmented Rices and their Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activities,” Food Chemistry, 101. 1616-25. 2007.
 
[8]  Romero, M.V., Ramos, N.C., Soco, O.C., Mamucod HF., “Characterizing the Neutraceutical Content and Enhancing the Utilization of Pigmented Rice in the Philippines,” PhilRice R&D Highlights Natural Products and Value-Adding Systems, 19-22. 2012.
 
[9]  Velasco, A.J.D., Medina, P.M.B., “Crude Anthocyanin Extract (CAE) from Ballatinao Black Rice Does Not Alter Longevity and Increases Stress Susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster,” Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci. Plant. Biol., 1 (4). 35-42. 2014.
 
[10]  Quebral, E.P.B., Medina, P.M.B., “Crude Anthocyanin Extract (CAE) from Ballatinao Black Rice Hastens Regeneration in Dugesia hymanae,” Pharm Biomed Sci, 5 (02). 147-153. 2015.
 
[11]  Altindag, A., Ergonul, M.B., Yigit, S., Baykan, O., “The acute toxicity of lead nitrate on Daphnia magna Straus,” African Journal of Biotechnology, 2 (23). 4298-300. 2008.
 
[12]  Le Blanc, G.A., “Laboratory Investigation into the Development of Resistance of Daphnia magna to Environmental Pollutants,” Environ Poll, 27. 309-22. 1982.
 
[13]  Beisinger, K.E., Christensen, G.M., Fiandt, J.T., “Effects of Metal Salt Mixtures on Daphnia magna Reproduction,” Environ Saf, 11. 9-14. 1972.
 
[14]  Gordillo, S., Fernandez-Pereira, A.C., Vale-Parapar, J.F., “Acute ecotoxicity Evaluation of Heavy Metals with Daphnia magna,” Ecotoxicol Environ Rest, 1 (3). 3-12. 1998.
 
[15]  Baird, D.J., Barber, I., Bradley, M., Soares, A.M.V.M., Calow, P., “A Comparative Study of Genotype Sensitivity to Acute Toxic Stress Using Clones of Daphnia magna Strauss,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 9. 216-229. 1985.
 
[16]  Chen, W., Muller, D., Richling, E., Wink, M., “Anthocyanin-rich Purple Wheat Prolongs Life Span of Caenorhabditis elegans Probably by Activating the DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor,” J Agric Food Chem, 61 (12). 3047-53. 2013.
 
[17]  Zuo, Y., Peng, C., Liang, Y., Ma, K.Y., Yu, H., Chan, H.Y.E., Chen, Z., “Black Rice Extract Extends the Lifespan of Fruit Flies,” Food Funct, 3. 1271-79. 2012.
 
[18]  Hou, Z., Qin, P., Zhang, Y., Cui, S., Ren, G., “Identification of Anthocyanins Isolated from Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and their Degradation Kinetics,” Food Res Int, 50. 691-697. 2013.
 
[19]  Oki, T., Masuda, M., Kobayash, M., Nishiba, Y., Furuta, S., Suda, I., Sato, T., “Polymeric Procyanidins as Radical-scavenging Components in Red-hulled Rice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50. 7524-7529. 2002.
 
[20]  Sutharut, J., Sudarat, J., “Total Anthocyanin Content and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Colored Rice,” International Food Research Journal, 19 (1). 215-221. 2012.
 
[21]  Sangkitikomol, W., Tencomnao, T., Rocejanasarol. A., “Effects of Thai Black Sticky Rice Extract on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism Gene Expression in HepG2 Cells,” Genetics and Molecular Research, 9 (4). 2086-2095. 2010.
 
[22]  Villegas-Navarro, A., Rosas-L., E., & Reyes, J.L., “The Heart of Daphnia magna: Effects of Four Cardioactive Drugs,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 136. 127-134. 2003.