Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
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Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014, 2(4), 85-90
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-2-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Two Brands of Cell Phone on Germination Rate and Seedling of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Rim A. Hussein1, and Magda A. El-Maghraby1

1Environmental Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

Pub. Date: October 24, 2014

Cite this paper:
Rim A. Hussein and Magda A. El-Maghraby. Effect of Two Brands of Cell Phone on Germination Rate and Seedling of Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014; 2(4):85-90. doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-4-3

Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the effect of radiation emitted from two brands of cell phones; in both (talking) and (non-talking) status, on the germination rate and the embryonic stem length of Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum) following varying durations of exposure (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 up to 30 minutes) and from different distances from the cell phone (5cm, 10cm and 15cm). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS 16. Regression models were used to estimate the adjusted predictability of germination rate and embryonic stem length. Exposure to cell phone radiation was found to have an inhibitory effect on germination rate and embryonic stem length of Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum). As for germination rate, the inhibitory effect was not statistically significant for duration of exposure up to 30 minutes, a distance from the cell phone as close as 5 cm and with exposure to two different cell phone brands. On the other hand, significant decline in number of germinated seeds compared to control group was observed when cell phone was used in the (non-talking) status than in the (talking) status (p = .006). A logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effects of different variables on the likelihood of germination. According to the model, seeds exposed to cell phone brand B were .8 times less likely to germinate than those exposed to cell phone brand A. In addition, seeds exposed to cell phone in the non-talking status were .714 times less likely to germinate than those exposed to a talking cell phone. Concerning the effect on embryonic stem length, distance from cell phone, cell phone brand, and cell phone status (talking/non-talking) had statistically significant inhibitory effects on embryonic stem length of exposed seeds as determined by one-way ANOVA (p = .001, .000 and .007 respectively). A linear regression was performed to ascertain the effects of different variables. According to the model, distance from cell phone and cell phone brand negatively predicted embryonic stem length (B= -.218 and -.636 respectively). Cell phone brand was stronger predictor than distance from cell phone (p = .000 and .007 respectively). Based on the results obtained, one can conclude that there is a certain effect on germination rate and embryonic stem length from exposure to cell phone radiation. Such effect might be affecting human beings using cell phones. More studies are needed to clarify the basis of these effects in order to be able to prevent negative ones.

Keywords:
cell phone radiations germination rate embryonic stem length wheat (Triticum aestivum)

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